Instruments are installed for two purposes: to display current conditions and to notify of unsatisfactory conditions. Standardized colors are used to differentiate between visual messages. For example, the color green indicates a satisfactory condition. Yellow is used to caution of a serious condition that requires further monitoring. Red is the color for an unsatisfactory condition. Whether part of the instrument face or of a visual warning system, these colors give quickreference information to the pilot.
Most aircraft include annunciator lights that illuminate when an event demanding attention occurs. These use the aforementioned colors in a variety of presentations. Individual lights near the associated cockpit instrument or a collective display of lights for various systems in a central location are common. Words label each light or are part of the light itself to identify any problem quickly and plainly.
On complex aircraft, the status of numerous systems and components must be known and maintained. Centralized warning systems have been developed to annunciate critical messages concerning a multitude of systems and components in a simplified, organized manner. Often, this will be done by locating a single annunciator panel somewhere on the instrument panel. These analog aircraft warning systems may look different in various aircraft, and depend on manufacturer preference and the systems installed. [Figure 10-128] EFIS provide for annunciation of advisory and warning messages as part of its flight control and monitoring capabilities, as previously described. Usually, the primary display unit is designated as the location to display annunciations.
Master caution lights are used to draw the attention of the crew to a critical situation in addition to an annunciator that describes the problem. These master caution lights are centrally wired and illuminate whenever any of the participating systems or components require attention. Once notified, the pilot may cancel the master caution, but a dedicated system or component annunciator light stays illuminated until the situation that caused the warning is rectified. Cancelling resets the master caution lights to warn of a subsequent fault event even before the initial fault is corrected. [Figure 10-129] Press to test is available for the entire annunciator system, which energizes all warning circuitry and lights to confirm readiness. Often, this test exposes the need to replace the tiny light bulbs that are used in the system.
Aural Warning Systems
Aircraft aural warning systems work in conjunction with illuminated annunciator systems. They audibly inform the pilot of a situation requiring attention. Various tones and phrases sound in the cockpit to alert the crew when certain conditions exist. For example, an aircraft with retractable landing gear uses an aural warning system to alert the crew to an unsafe condition. A bell sounds if the throttle is retarded and the landing gear is not in a down and locked condition.A typical transport category aircraft has an aural warning system that alerts the pilot with audio signals for the following: abnormal takeoff, landing, pressurization, mach airspeed conditions, an engine or wheel well fire, calls from the crew call system, collision avoidance recommendations, and more. Figure 10-130 shows some of the problems that trigger aural warnings and the action to be taken to correct the situation.