To assure proper system operation and to avoid damage to nonmetallic components of the hydraulic system, the correct fluid must be used. When adding fluid to a system, use the type specified in the aircraft manufacturer’s maintenance manual or on the instruction plate affixed to the reservoir or unit being serviced.
The three principal categories of hydraulic fluids are:
- Phosphate esters
When servicing a hydraulic system, the technician must be certain to use the correct category of replacement fluid. Hydraulic fluids are not necessarily compatible. For example, contamination of the fire-resistant fluid MIL-H-83282 with MIL-H-5606 may render the MIL-H-83282 non fire-resistant.
Mineral oil-based hydraulic fluid (MIL-H-5606) is the oldest, dating back to the 1940s. It is used in many systems, especially where the fire hazard is comparatively low. MIL-H-6083 is simply a rust-inhibited version of MIL-H-5606. They are completely interchangeable. Suppliers generally ship hydraulic components with MIL-H-6083. Mineral-based hydraulic fluid (MIL–H-5606) is processed from petroleum. It has an odor similar to penetrating oil and is dyed red. Synthetic rubber seals are used with petroleum-based fluids.
MIL-H-83282 is a fire-resistant hydrogenated polyalphaolefinbased fluid developed in the 1960s to overcome the flammability characteristics of MIL-H-5606. MIL-H-83282 is significantly more flame resistant than MIL-H-5606, but a disadvantage is the high viscosity at low temperature. It is generally limited to –40 °F. However, it can be used in the same system and with the same seals, gaskets, and hoses as MIL-H-5606. MIL-H-46170 is the rust-inhibited version of MIL-H-83282. Small aircraft predominantly use MIL-H-5606, but some have switched to MIL-H-83282 if they can accommodate the high viscosity at low temperature.
Phosphate Ester-Based Fluid (Skydrol®)
These fluids are used in most commercial transport category aircraft and are extremely fire-resistant. However, they are not fireproof and under certain conditions, they burn. The earliest generation of these fluids was developed after World War II as a result of the growing number of aircraft hydraulic brake fires that drew the collective concern of the commercial aviation industry. Progressive development of these fluids occurred as a result of performance requirements of newer aircraft designs. The airframe manufacturers dubbed these new generations of hydraulic fluid as types based on their performance.
Today, types IV and V fluids are used. Two distinct classes of type IV fluids exist based on their density: class I fluids are low density and class II fluids are standard density. The class I fluids provide weight savings advantages versus class II. In addition to the type IV fluids that are currently in use, type V fluids are being developed in response to industry demands for a more thermally stable fluid at higher operating temperatures. Type V fluids will be more resistant to hydrolytic and oxidative degradation at high temperature than the type IV fluids.
Intermixing of Fluids
Due to the difference in composition, petroleum-based and phosphate ester-based fluids will not mix; neither are the seals for any one fluid usable with or tolerant of any of the other fluids. Should an aircraft hydraulic system be serviced with the wrong type fluid, immediately drain and flush the system and maintain the seals according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
Compatibility with Aircraft Materials
Aircraft hydraulic systems designed around Skydrol® fluids should be virtually trouble-free if properly serviced. Skydrol® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Company. Skydrol® does not appreciably affect common aircraft metals—aluminum, silver, zinc, magnesium, cadmium, iron, stainless steel, bronze, chromium, and others—as long as the fluids are kept free of contamination. Due to the phosphate ester base of Skydrol® fluids, thermoplastic resins, including vinyl compositions, nitrocellulose lacquers, oil-based paints, linoleum, and asphalt may be softened chemically by Skydrol® fluids. However, this chemical action usually requires longer than just momentary exposure, and spills that are wiped up with soap and water do not harm most of these materials. Paints that are Skydrol® resistant include epoxies and polyurethanes. Today, polyurethanes are the standard of the aircraft industry because of their ability to keep a bright, shiny finish for long periods of time and for the ease with which they can be removed.
Hydraulic systems require the use of special accessories that are compatible with the hydraulic fluid. Appropriate seals, gaskets, and hoses must be specifically designated for the type of fluid in use. Care must be taken to ensure that the components installed in the system are compatible with the fluid. When gaskets, seals, and hoses are replaced, positive identification should be made to ensure that they are made of the appropriate material. Skydrol® type V fluid is compatible with natural fibers and with a number of synthetics, including nylon and polyester, which are used extensively in most aircraft. Petroleum oil hydraulic system seals of neoprene or Buna-N are not compatible with Skydrol® and must be replaced with seals of butyl rubber or ethylene-propylene elastoiners.
Hydraulic Fluid Contamination
Experience has shown that trouble in a hydraulic system is inevitable whenever the liquid is allowed to become contaminated. The nature of the trouble, whether a simple malfunction or the complete destruction of a component, depends to some extent on the type of contaminant. Two general contaminants are:
- Abrasives, including such particles as core sand, weld spatter, machining chips, and rust.
- Nonabrasives, including those resulting from oil oxidation and soft particles worn or shredded from seals and other organic components.
Whenever it is suspected that a hydraulic system has become contaminated or the system has been operated at temperatures in excess of the specified maximum, a check of the system should be made. The filters in most hydraulic systems are designed to remove most foreign particles that are visible to the naked eye. Hydraulic liquid that appears clean to the naked eye may be contaminated to the point that it is unfit for use. Thus, visual inspection of the hydraulic liquid does not determine the total amount of contamination in the system. Large particles of impurities in the hydraulic system are indications that one or more components are being subjected to excessive wear. Isolating the defective component requires a systematic process of elimination. Fluid returned to the reservoir may contain impurities from any part of the system. To determine which component is defective, liquid samples should be taken from the reservoir and various other locations in the system. Samples should be taken in accordance with the applicable manufacturer’s instructions for a particular hydraulic system. Some hydraulic systems are equipped with permanently installed bleed valves for taking liquid samples, whereas on other systems, lines must be disconnected to provide a place to take a sample.
Hydraulic Sampling Schedule
- Routine sampling—each system should be sampled at least once a year, or every 3,000 flight hours, or whenever the airframe manufacturer suggests.
- Unscheduled maintenance—when malfunctions may have a fluid related cause, samples should be taken.
- Suspicion of contamination—if contamination is suspected, fluids should be drained and replaced, with samples taken before and after the maintenance procedure.
- Pressurize and operate hydraulic system for 10–15 minutes. During this period, operate various flight controls to activate valves and thoroughly mix hydraulic fluid.
- Shut down and depressurize the system.
- Before taking samples, always be sure to wear the proper personal protective equipment that should include, at the minimum, safety glasses and gloves.
- Wipe off sampling port or tube with a lint-free cloth. Do not use shop towels or paper products that could produce lint. Generally speaking, the human eye can see particles down to about 40 microns in size. Since we are concerned with particles down to 5 microns in size, it is easy to contaminate a sample without ever knowing it.
- Place a waste container under the reservoir drain valve and open valve so that a steady, but not forceful, stream is running.
- Allow approximately 1 pint (250 ml) of fluid to drain. This purges any settled particles from the sampling port.
- Insert a precleaned sample bottle under the fluid stream and fill, leaving an air space at the top. Withdraw the bottle and cap immediately.
- Close drain valve.
- Fill out sample identification label supplied in sample kit, making sure to include customer name, aircraft type, aircraft tail number, hydraulic system sampled, and date sampled. Indicate on the sample label under remarks if this is a routine sample or if it is being taken due to a suspected problem.
- Service system reservoirs to replace the fluid that was removed.
- Submit samples for analysis to laboratory.
Filters provide adequate control of the contamination problem during all normal hydraulic system operations. Control of the size and amount of contamination entering the system from any other source is the responsibility of the people who service and maintain the equipment. Therefore, precautions should be taken to minimize contamination during maintenance, repair, and service operations. If the system becomes contaminated, the filter element should be removed and cleaned or replaced. As an aid in controlling contamination, the following maintenance and servicing procedures should be followed at all times:
- Maintain all tools and the work area (workbenches and test equipment) in a clean, dirt-free condition.
- A suitable container should always be provided to receive the hydraulic liquid that is spilled during component removal or disassembly procedures.
- Before disconnecting hydraulic lines or fittings, clean the affected area with dry cleaning solvent.
- All hydraulic lines and fittings should be capped or plugged immediately after disconnecting.
- Before assembly of any hydraulic components, wash all parts in an approved dry cleaning solvent.
- After cleaning the parts in the dry cleaning solution, dry the parts thoroughly and lubricate them with the recommended preservative or hydraulic liquid before assembly. Use only clean, lint-free cloths to wipe or dry the component parts.
- All seals and gaskets should be replaced during the reassembly procedure. Use only those seals and gaskets recommended by the manufacturer.
- All parts should be connected with care to avoid stripping metal slivers from threaded areas. All fittings and lines should be installed and torqued in accordance with applicable technical instructions.
- All hydraulic servicing equipment should be kept clean and in good operating condition.
Contamination, both particulate and chemical, is detrimental to the performance and life of components in the aircraft hydraulic system. Contamination enters the system through normal wear of components by ingestion through external seals during servicing, or maintenance, when the system is opened to replace/repair components, etc. To control the particulate contamination in the system, filters are installed in the pressure line, in the return line, and in the pump case drain line of each system. The filter rating is given in microns as an indication of the smallest particle size that is filtered out. The replacement interval of these filters is established by the manufacturer and is included in the maintenance manual. In the absence of specific replacement instructions, a recommended service life of the filter elements is:
- Pressure filters—3,000 hours
- Return Filters—1,500 hours
- Case drain filters—600 hours
Hydraulic System Flushing
When inspection of hydraulic filters or hydraulic fluid evaluation indicates that the fluid is contaminated, flushing the system may be necessary. This must be done according to the manufacturer’s instructions; however, a typical procedure for flushing is as follows:
- Connect a ground hydraulic test stand to the inlet and outlet test ports of the system. Verify that the ground unit fluid is clean and contains the same fluid as the aircraft.
- Change the system filters.
- Pump clean, filtered fluid through the system, and operate all subsystems until no obvious signs of contamination are found during inspection of the filters. Dispose of contaminated fluid and filter. Note: A visual inspection of hydraulic filters is not always effective.
- Disconnect the test stand and cap the ports.
- Ensure that the reservoir is filled to the full line or proper service level.
It is very important to check if the fluid in the hydraulic test stand, or mule, is clean before the flushing operation starts. A contaminated hydraulic test stand can quickly contaminate other aircraft if used for ground maintenance operations.
Health and Handling
Skydrol® fluids are phosphate ester-based fluids blended with performance additives. Phosphate esters are good solvents and dissolve away some of the fatty materials of the skin. Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause drying of the skin, which if unattended, could result in complications, such as dermatitis or even secondary infection from bacteria.
Skydrol® fluids could cause itching of the skin but have not been known to cause allergic-type skin rashes. Always use the proper gloves and eye protection when handling any type of hydraulic fluid. When Skydrol®/Hyjet mist or vapor exposure is possible, a respirator capable of removing organic vapors and mists must be worn. Ingestion of any hydraulic fluid should be avoided. Although small amounts do not appear to be highly hazardous, any significant amount should be tested in accordance with manufacturer’s direction, followed with hospital supervised stomach treatment.