The segmented multiple-disc brake has given many years of reliable service to the aviation industry. It has evolved through time in an effort to make it lightweight and to dissipate the frictional heat of braking in a quick, safe manner. The latest iteration of the multiple-disc brake is the carbon-disc brake. It is currently found on high performance and air carrier aircraft. Carbon brakes are so named because carbon fiber materials are used to construct the brake rotors. [Figure 13-89]
Carbon brakes are approximately forty percent lighter than conventional brakes. On a large transport category aircraft, this alone can save several hundred pounds in aircraft weight. The carbon fiber discs are noticeably thicker than sintered steel rotors but are extremely light. They are able to withstand temperatures fifty percent higher than steel component brakes. The maximum designed operating temperature is limited by the ability of adjacent components to withstand the high temperature. Carbon brakes have been shown to withstand two to three times the heat of a steel brake in nonaircraft applications. Carbon rotors also dissipate heat faster than steel rotors. A carbon rotor maintains its strength and dimensions at high temperatures. Moreover, carbon brakes last twenty to fifty percent longer than steel brakes, which results in reduced maintenance.
The only impediment to carbon brakes being used on all aircraft is the high cost of manufacturing. The price is expected to lower as technology improves and greater numbers of aircraft operators enter the market.
Expander Tube Brakes
An expander tube brake is a different approach to braking that is used on aircraft of all sizes produced in the 1930s–1950s. It is a lightweight, low pressure brake bolted to the axle flange that fits inside an iron brake drum. A flat, fabric-reinforced neoprene tube is fitted around the circumference of a wheellike torque flange. The exposed flat surface of the expander tube is lined with brake blocks similar to brake lining material. Two flat frames bolt to the sides of the torque flange. Tabs on the frames contain the tube and allow evenly spaced torque bars to be bolted in place across the tube between each brake block. These prevent circumferential movement of the tube on the flange. [Figure 13-90]
The expander tube is fitted with a metal nozzle on the inner surface. Hydraulic fluid under pressure is directed through this fitting into the inside of the tube when the brakes are applied. The tube expands outward, and the brake blocks make contact with the wheel drum causing friction that slows the wheel. As hydraulic pressure is increased, greater friction develops. Semi-elliptical springs located under the torque bars return the expander tube to a flat position around the flange when hydraulic pressure is removed. The clearance between the expander tube and the brake drum is adjustable by rotating an adjuster on some expander tube brakes. Consult the manufacturer’s maintenance manual for the correct clearance setting. Figure 13-91 gives an exploded view of an expander tube brake, detailing its components.Expander tube brakes work well but have some drawbacks. They tend to take a setback when cold. They also have a tendency to swell with temperature and leak. They may drag inside the drum if this occurs. Eventually, expander brakes were abandoned in favor of disc brake systems.