Before installing new or reconditioned spark plugs in the engine cylinders, clean the spark plug bushings or Heli-Coil inserts.
Brass or stainless steel spark plug bushings are usually cleaned with a spark plug bushing cleanout tap. Before inserting the cleanout tap in the spark plug hole, fill the flutes of the tap, or channels between threads, with clean grease to prevent hard carbon or other material removed by the tap from dropping into the inside of the cylinder. Align the tap with the bushing threads by sight where possible, and start the tap by hand until there is no possibility of it being cross-threaded in the bushing. To start the tap on installations where the spark plug hole is located deeper than can be reached by a clenched hand, it may be necessary to use a short length of hose slipped over the square end of the tap to act as an extension. When screwing the tap into the bushing, be sure that the full tap cutting thread reaches the bottom thread of the bushing. This removes carbon deposits from the bushing threads without removing bushing metal, unless the pitch diameter of the threads has contracted as the result of shrinkage or some other unusual condition. Replace the cylinder if, during the thread-cleaning process, the bushing is found to be loose, loosened in the cylinder, or the threads are cross-threaded or otherwise seriously damaged.
Spark plug Heli-Coil inserts are cleaned with a round wire brush, preferably one having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the spark plug hole. A brush considerably larger than the hole may cause removal of material from the Heli-Coil proper or from the cylinder head surrounding the insert. Also, the brush should not disintegrate with use, allowing wire bristles to fall into the cylinder. Clean the insert by carefully rotating the wire brush with a power tool. When using the power brush, be careful that no material is removed from the spark plug gasket seating surface, since this may cause a change in the spark plug’s heat range, combustion leakage, and eventual cylinder damage. Never clean the Heli- Coil inserts with a cleaning tap, since permanent damage to the insert results. If a Heli-Coil insert is damaged as a result of normal operation or while cleaning it, replace it according to the applicable manufacturer’s instructions.
Using a lint-free rag and cleaning solvent, wipe the spark plug gasket seating surface of the cylinder to eliminate the possibility of dirt or grease being accidentally deposited on the spark plug electrodes at the time of installation.
Before the new or reconditioned plugs are installed, they must be inspected for each of the following conditions:
- Ensure that the plug is of the approved type, as indicated by the applicable manufacturer’s instructions.
- Check for evidence of rust-preventive compound on the spark plug exterior and core insulator and on the inside of the shielding barrel. Rust-preventive compound accumulations are removed by washing the plug with a brush and cleaning solvent. It must then be dried with a dry air blast.
- Check both ends of the plug for nicked or cracked threads and any indication of cracks in the nose insulator.
- Inspect the inside of the shielding barrel for cracks in the barrel insulator, and the center electrode contact for rust and foreign material that might cause poor electrical contact.
- Install a new spark plug gasket. When the thermocouple gasket is used, do not use an additional gasket.
The gap setting should be checked with a round wirethickness gauge. [Figure 4-56] A flat-type gauge gives an incorrect clearance indication because the massive ground electrodes are contoured to the shape of the round center electrode. When using the wire thickness gauge, insert the gauge in each gap parallel to the centerline of the center electrode. If the gauge is tilted slightly, the indication is incorrect. Do not install a plug that does not have an air gap within the specified clearance range.