Rigid Tubing Installation and Inspection
Before installing a line assembly in an aircraft, inspect the line carefully. Remove dents and scratches, and be sure all nuts and sleeves are snugly mated and securely fitted by proper flaring of the tubing. The line assembly should be clean and free of all foreign matter.
Connection and Torque
Never apply compound to the faces of the fitting or the flare, for it will destroy the metal-to-metal contact between the fitting and flare, a contact which is necessary to produce the seal. Be sure that the line assembly is properly aligned before tightening the fittings. Do not pull the installation into place with torque on the nut. Correct and incorrect methods of installing flared tube assemblies are illustrated in Figure 7-22.
Proper torque values are given in Table 7-2.Remember that these torque values are for flared-type fittings only. Always tighten fittings to the correct torque value when installing a tube assembly. Overtightening a fitting may badly damage or completely cut off the tube flare, or it may ruin the sleeve or fitting nut. Failure to tighten sufficiently also may be serious, as this condition may allow the line to blow out of the assembly or to leak under system pressure. The use of torque wrenches and the prescribed torque values prevents overtightening or undertightening. If a tube fitting assembly is tightened properly, it may be removed and retightened many times before reflaring is necessary.
Flareless Tube Installation
Tighten the nut by hand until an increase in resistance to turning is encountered. Should it be impossible to run the nut down with the fingers, use a wrench, but be alert for the first signs of bottoming. It is important that the final tightening commence at the point where the nut just begins to bottom. Use a wrench and turn the nut one-sixth turn (one flat on a hex nut). Use a wrench on the connector to prevent it from turning while tightening the nut. After the tube assembly is installed, the system should be pressure tested. It is permissible to tighten the nut an additional one-sixth turn (making a total of one-third turn), should a connection leak. If leakage still occurs after tightening the nut a total of one-third turn, remove the assembly and inspect the components for scores, cracks, presence of foreign material, or damage from overtightening. Several aircraft manufacturers include torque values in their maintenance manuals to tighten the flareless fittings.
The following notes, cautions, and faults apply to the installation of rigid tubing.
Note: Overtightening a flareless tube nut drives the cutting edge of the sleeve deeply into the tube, causing the tube to be weakened to the point where normal in-flight vibration could cause the tube to shear. After inspection (if no discrepancies are found), reassemble the connections and repeat the pressure test procedures.
Caution: Never tighten the nut beyond one-third turn (two flats on the hex nut); this is the maximum the fitting may be tightened without the possibility of permanently damaging the sleeve and nut.
Common faults: Flare distorted into nut threads; sleeve cracked; flare cracked or split; flare out of round; inside of flare rough or scratched; and threads of nut or union dirty, damaged, or broken.
Rigid Tubing Inspection and Repair
Minor dents and scratches in tubing may be repaired. Scratches or nicks not deeper than 10 percent of the wall thickness in aluminum alloy tubing, which are not in the heel of a bend, may be repaired by burnishing with hand tools. The damage limits for hard, thinwalled corrosion-resistant steel and titanium tubing are considerably less than for aluminum tubing, and might depend on the aircraft manufacturer. Consult the aircraft maintenance manual for damage limits. Replace lines with severe die marks, seams, or splits in the tube. Any crack or deformity in a flare is unacceptable and is cause for rejection. A dent of less than 20 percent of the tube diameter is not objectionable, unless it is in the heel of a bend. To remove dents, draw a bullet of proper size through the tube by means of a length of cable, or push the bullet through a short straight tube by means of a dowel rod. In this case, a bullet is a ball bearing or slug normally made of steel or some other hard metal. In the case of soft aluminum tubing, a hard wood slug or dowel may even be used as a bullet. [Figure 7-23]
A severely damaged line should be replaced. However, the line may be repaired by cutting out the damaged section and inserting a tube section of the same size and material. Flare both ends of the undamaged and replacement tube sections and make the connection by using standard unions, sleeves, and tube nuts. Aluminum 6061-T6, corrosion resistant steel 304-1/8h and Titanium 3AL-2.5V tubing can be repaired by swaged fittings. If the damaged portion is short enough, omit the insert tube and repair by using one repair union. [Figure 7-24] When repairing a damaged line, be very careful to remove all chips and burrs. Any open line that is to be left unattended for some time should be sealed, using metal, wood, rubber, or plastic plugs or caps.
When replacing rigid tubing, ensure that the layout of the new line is the same as that of the line being replaced. Remove the damaged or worn assembly, taking care not to further damage or distort it, and use it as a forming template for the new part. If the old length of tubing cannot be used as a pattern, make a wire template, bending the pattern by hand as required for the new assembly. Then bend the tubing to match the wire pattern. Never select a path that does not require bends in the tubing. A tube cannot be cut or flared accurately enough so that it can be installed without bending and still be free from mechanical strain. Bends are also necessary to permit the tubing to expand or contract under temperature changes and to absorb vibration. If the tube is small (under 1⁄4″) and can be hand formed, casual bends may be made to allow for this. It the tube must be machine formed, definite bends must be made to avoid a straight assembly. Start all bends a reasonable distance from the fittings because the sleeves and nuts must be slipped back during the fabrication of flares and during inspections. In all cases, the new tube assembly should be so formed prior to installation that it will not be necessary to pull or deflect the assembly into alignment by means of the coupling nuts.