Fluid Line Identification
Fluid lines in aircraft are often identified by markers made up of color codes, words, and geometric symbols. These markers identify each line’s function, content, and primary hazard. Figure 7-13 illustrates the various color codes and symbols used to designate the type of system and its contents.
Fluid lines are marked, in most instances with 1″ tape or decals, as shown in Figure 7-14(A). On lines 4″ in diameter (or larger), lines in oily environment, hot lines, and on some cold lines, steel tags may be used in place of tape or decals, as shown in Figure 7-14(B). Paint is used on lines in engine compartments, where there is the possibility of tapes, decals, or tags being drawn into the engine induction system.
In addition to the above-mentioned markings, certain lines may be further identified regarding specific function within a system; for example, drain, vent, pressure, or return. Lines conveying fuel may be marked FLAM; lines containing toxic materials are marked TOXIC in place of FLAM. Lines containing physically dangerous materials, such as oxygen, nitrogen, or Freon™, may be marked PHDAN. [Figure 7-14]
Aircraft and engine manufacturers are responsible for the original installation of identification markers, but the aviation mechanic is responsible for their replacement when it becomes necessary. Tapes and decals are generally placed on both ends of a line and at least once in each compartment through which the line runs. In addition, identification markers are placed immediately adjacent to each valve, regulator, filter, or other accessory within a line. Where paint or tags are used, location requirements are the same as for tapes and decals.
Fluid Line End Fittings
Depending on the type and use, fittings will have either pipe threads or machine threads. Pipe threads are similar to those used in ordinary plumbing and are tapered, both internal and external. External threads are referred to as male threads and internal threads are female threads.
When two fittings are joined, a male into a female, the thread taper forms a seal. Some form of pipe thread lubricant approved for the particular fluid application should be used when joining pipe threads to prevent seizing and high-pressure leakage. Use care when applying thread lubricant so that the lubricant will not enter and contaminate the system. Do not use lubricants on oxygen lines. Oxygen will react with petroleum products and can ignite (special lubricants are available for oxygen systems).
Machine threads have no sealing capability and are similar to those used on common nuts and bolts. This type of fitting is used only to draw connections together or for attachment through bulkheads. A flared tube connection, a crush washer, or a synthetic seal is used to make the connection fluid tight. Machine threads have no taper and will not form a fluid-tight seal. The size of these fittings is given in dash numbers, which equal the nominal o.d. in sixteenths of an inch.
Universal Bulkhead Fittings
When a fluid line passes through a bulkhead, and it is desired to secure the line to the bulkhead, a bulkhead fitting should be used. The end of the fitting that passes through the bulkhead is longer than the other end(s), which allows a locknut to be installed, securing the fitting to the bulkhead.
Fittings attach one piece of tubing to another, or to system units. There are four types: (1) bead and clamp, (2) flared fittings, (3) flareless fittings, and (4) permanent fittings (Permaswage™, Permalite™, and Cyrofit™). The amount of pressure that the system carries and the material used are usually the deciding factors in selecting a connector.
The beaded type of fitting, which requires a bead and a section of hose and hose clamps, is used only in low- or medium-pressure systems, such as vacuum and coolant systems. The flared, flareless, or permanenttype fittings may be used as connectors in all systems, regardless of the pressure.