Checking and Safetying the System
Whenever rigging is performed on any aircraft, it is good practice to have a second set of eyes inspect the control system to make certain that all turnbuckles, rod ends, and attaching nuts and bolts are correctly safetied.
As a general rule, all fasteners on an aircraft are safetied in some manner. Safetying is defined as securing by various means any nut, bolt, turnbuckle, etc., on the aircraft so that vibration does not cause it to loosen during operation.
Most aircraft manufacturers have a Standard Practices section in their maintenance manuals. These are the methods that should be used when working on a particular system of a specific aircraft. However, most standard aircraft hardware has a standard method of being safetied. The following information provides some of the most common methods used in aircraft safetying.
The most commonly used safety wire method is the doubletwist, utilizing stainless steel or Monel wire in the .032 to .040-inch diameter range. This method is used on studs, cable turnbuckles, flight controls, and engine accessory attaching bolts. A single-wire method is used on smaller screws, bolts, and/or nuts when they are located in a closely spaced or closed geometrical pattern. The single-wire method is also used on electrical components and in places that are difficult to reach. [Figure 2-91]
Safety-of-flight emergency equipment, such as portable fire extinguishers, oxygen regulators, emergency valves, firewall shut-offs, and seals on first-aid kits, are safetied using a single copper wire (.020-inch diameter) or aluminum wire (.031- inch diameter). The wire on this emergency equipment is installed only to indicate the component is sealed or has not been actuated. It must be possible to break the wire seal by hand, without the use of any tools.
The use of safety wire pliers, or wire twisters, makes the job of safetying much easier on the mechanic’s hands and produces a better finished product. [Figure 2-92]
The wire should have six to eight twists per inch of wire and be pulled taut while being installed. Where practicable, install the safety wire around the head of the fastener and twist it in such a manner that the loop of the wire is pulled close to the contour of the unit being safety wired, and in the direction that would have the tendency to tighten the fastener. [Figure 2-93]Cotter pins are used to secure such items as bolts, screws, pins, and shafts. They are used at any location where a turning or actuating movement takes place. The diameter of the cotter pin selected for any application should be the largest size that will fit consistent with the diameter of the cotter pin hole and/ or the slots in the castellated nut. Cotter pins, like safety wire, should never be re-used on aircraft. [Figure 2-94]
Self-locking nuts are used in applications where they are not removed often. There are two types of self-locking nuts currently in use. One is all metal and the other has an insert, usually of fiber or nylon.
It is extremely important that the manufacturer’s Illustrated Parts Book (IPB) be consulted for the correct type and grade of lock nut for various locations on the aircraft. The finish or plating color of the nut identifies the type of application and environment in which it can be used. For example, a cadmium-plated nut is gold in color and provides exceptionally good protection against corrosion, but should not be used in applications where the temperature may exceed 450 °F.
Repeated removal and installation causes the self-locking nut to lose its locking feature. They should be replaced when they are no longer capable of maintaining the minimum prevailing torque. [Figure 2-95]
Lock washers may be used with bolts and machine screws whenever a self-locking nut or castellated nut is not applicable. They may be of the split washer spring type, or a multi-serrated internal or external star washer.
Pal nuts may be a second nut tightened against the first and used to force the primary nut thread against the bolt or screw thread. They may also be of the type that are made of stamped spring steel and are to be used only once and replaced with new ones when removed.