The throttle body contains the throttle valves, main venturi, boost venturi, and the impact tubes. All air entering the cylinders must flow through the throttle body; therefore, it is the air control and measuring device. The airflow is measured by volume and by weight so that the proper amount of fuel can be added to meet the engine demands under all conditions.
As air flows through the venturi, its velocity is increased and its pressure is decreased (Bernoulli’s principle). This low pressure is vented to the low pressure side of the air diaphragm [Figure 2-24 chamber B] in the regulator assembly. The impact tubes sense carburetor inlet air pressure and direct it to the automatic mixture control, which measures the air density. From the automatic mixture control, the air is directed to the high pressure side of the air diaphragm (chamber A). The pressure differential of the two chambers acting upon the air diaphragm is known as the air metering force which opens the fuel poppet valve.
The throttle body controls the airflow with the throttle valves. The throttle valves may be either rectangular or disk shaped, depending on the design of the carburetor. The valves are mounted on a shaft, which is connected by linkage to the idle valve and to the throttle control in the cockpit. A throttle stop limits the travel of the throttle valve and has an adjustment which sets engine idle speed.