Steel (Including SAE 4130)
Low-carbon steel, low-alloy steel (e.g., 4130), cast steel, and wrought iron are easily welded with the oxy-acetylene flame. Low-carbon and low-alloy steels are the ferrous materials that are gas welded most frequently. As the carbon content of steel increases, it may be repaired by welding using specific procedures for various alloy types. Factors involved are the carbon content and hardenability. For corrosion-resistant and heat-resistant nickel chromium steels, the allowed weldability depends upon their stability, carbon content, and reheat treatment.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) provide a designation system that is an accepted standard for the industry. SAE 4130 is an alloy steel that is an ideal material for constructing fuselages and framework on small aircraft; it is also used for motorcycle and high-end bicycle frames and race car frames and roll cages. The tubing has high tensile strength, malleability, and is easy to weld.
The number ‘4130’ is also an AISI 4-digit code that defines the approximate chemical composition of the steel. The ‘41’ indicates a low-alloy steel containing chromium and molybdenum (chromoly) and the ‘30’ designates a carbon content of 0.3 percent. 4130 steel also contains small amounts of manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon, but like all steels, it contains mostly iron.
In order to make a good weld, the carbon content of the steel must not be altered to any appreciable degree, nor can other atmospheric chemical constituents be added to or subtracted from the base metal without seriously altering the properties of the metal. However, many welding filler wires do contain constituents different from the base material for specific reasons, which is perfectly normal and acceptable if approved materials are used. Molten steel has a great affinity for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen combining with the molten puddle to form oxides and nitrates, both of which lower the strength of steel. When welding with an oxy-acetylene flame, the inclusion of impurities can be minimized by observing the following precautions:
- Maintain an exact neutral flame for most steels and a slight excess of acetylene when welding alloys with a high nickel or chromium content, such as stainless steel.
- Maintain a soft flame and control the puddle.
- Maintain a flame sufficient to penetrate the metal and manipulate it so that the molten metal is protected from the air by the outer envelope of flame.
- Keep the hot end of the welding rod in the weld pool or within the flame envelope.
- When the weld is complete and still in the red heat, circle the outer envelope of the torch around the entire weldment to bring it evenly to a dull red. Slowly back the torch away from the weldment to ensure a slow cooling rate.
The welding technique for chrome molybdenum (chromemoly) is practically the same as that for carbon steels, except for sections over 3⁄16-inch thick. The surrounding area must be preheated to a temperature between 300 °F and 400 °F before beginning to weld. If this is not done, the sudden quenching of the weld area after the weld is complete may cause a brittle grain structure of untempered martensite that must be eliminated with post-weld heat treatments. Untempered martensite is a glass-like structure that takes the place of the normally ductile steel structure and makes the steel prone to cracking, usually near the edge of the weld. This preheating also helps to alleviate some of the distortion caused by welding along with using proper practices found in other sections of this section.
A soft neutral flame should be used for welding and must be maintained during the process. If the flame is not kept neutral, an oxidizing flame may cause oxide inclusions and fissures. A carburizing flame makes the metal more hardenable by raising the carbon content. The volume of the flame must be sufficient to melt the base metal, but not hot enough to overheat the base metal and cause oxide inclusions or a loss of metal thickness. The filler rod should be compatible with the base metal. If the weld requires high strength, special lowalloy filler is used, and the piece is heat treated after welding.
It may be advantageous to TIG weld 4130 chrome-moly sections over 0.093-inch thickness followed by a proper postweld heat treatment as this can result in less overall distortion. However, do not eliminate the postweld heat treatment as doing so could severely limit the fatigue life of the weldment due to the formed martensitic grain structure.
The procedure for welding stainless steel is basically the same as that for carbon steels. There are, however, some special precautions you must take to obtain the best results.
Only stainless steel used for nonstructural members of aircraft can be welded satisfactorily. The stainless steel used for structural components is cold worked or cold rolled and, if heated, loses some of its strength. Nonstructural stainless steel is obtained in sheet and tubing form and is often used for exhaust collectors, stacks, or manifolds. Oxygen combines very readily with this metal in the molten state, and you must take extreme care to prevent this from occurring.
A slightly carburizing flame is recommended for welding stainless steel. The flame should be adjusted so that a feather of excess acetylene, about 1⁄16-inch long, forms around the inner cone. Too much acetylene, however, adds carbon to the metal and causes it to lose its resistance to corrosion. The torch tip size should be one or two sizes smaller than that prescribed for a similar gauge of low carbon steel. The smaller tip lessens the chances of overheating and subsequent loss of the corrosion-resistant qualities of the metal.
To prevent the formation of chromium oxide, a specially compounded flux for stainless steel, should be used. The flux, when mixed with water, can be spread on the underside of the joint and on the filler rod. Since oxidation must be avoided as much as possible, use sufficient flux. The filler rod used should be of the same composition as the base metal.
When welding, hold the filler rod within the envelope of the torch flame so that the rod is melted in place or melted at the same time as the base metal. Add the filler rod by allowing it to flow into the molten pool. Do not stir the weld pool, because air enters the weld and increases oxidation. Avoid rewelding any portion or welding on the reverse side of the weld, which results in warping and overheating of the metal.
Another method used to keep oxygen from reaching the metal is to surround the weld with a blanket of inert gas. This is done by using a TIG welder to perform welding of stainless steel. It is a recommended method for excellent weld results and does not require the application of flux and its subsequent cleanup.