Backup rings (MS28782) made of Teflon™ do not deteriorate with age, are unaffected by any system fluid or vapor, and can tolerate temperature extremes in excess of those encountered in high pressure hydraulic systems. Their dash numbers indicate not only their size but also relate directly to the dash number of the O-ring for which they are dimensionally suited. They are procurable under a number of basic part numbers, but they are interchangeable; that is, any Teflon™ backup ring may be used to replace any other Teflon™ backup ring if it is of proper overall dimension to support the applicable O-ring. Backup rings are not color coded or otherwise marked and must be identified from package labels.
The inspection of backup rings should include a check to ensure that surfaces are free from irregularities, that the edges are clean cut and sharp, and that scarf cuts are parallel. When checking Teflon™ spiral backup rings, make sure that the coils do not separate more than 1⁄4 inch when unrestrained.
V-ring packings (AN6225) are one-way seals and are always installed with the open end of the “V” facing the pressure. V-ring packings must have a male and female adapter to hold them in the proper position after installation. It is also necessary to torque the seal retainer to the value specified by the manufacturer of the component being serviced, or the seal may not give satisfactory service. An installation using V-rings is shown in Figure 5-17.
U-ring packings (AN6226) and U-cup packings are used in brake assemblies and brake master cylinders. The U-ring and U-cup will seal pressure in only one direction; therefore, the lip of the packings must face toward the pressure. U-ring packings are primarily low pressure packings to be used with pressures of less than 1,000 psi.
Gaskets are used as static (stationary) seals between two flat surfaces. Some of the more common gasket materials are asbestos, copper, cork, and rubber. Asbestos sheeting is used wherever a heat resistant gasket is needed. It is used extensively for exhaust system gaskets. Most asbestos exhaust gaskets have a thin sheet of copper edging to prolong their life.
A solid copper washer is used for spark plug gaskets where it is essential to have a noncompressible, yet semisoft gasket.
Cork gaskets can be used as an oil seal between the engine crankcase and accessories, and where a gasket is required that is capable of occupying an uneven or varying space caused by a rough surface or expansion and contraction.
Rubber sheeting can be used where there is a need for a compressible gasket. It should not be used in any place where it may come in contact with gasoline or oil because the rubber will deteriorate very rapidly when exposed to these substances. Gaskets are used in fluid systems around the end caps of actuating cylinders, valves, and other units. The gasket generally used for this purpose is in the shape of an O-ring, similar to O-ring packings.
Wipers are used to clean and lubricate the exposed portions of piston shafts. They prevent dirt from entering the system and help protect the piston shaft against scoring. Wipers may be either metallic or felt. They are sometimes used together, a felt wiper installed behind a metallic wiper.
Certain areas of all aircraft are sealed to withstand pressurization by air, to prevent leakage of fuel, to prevent passage of fumes, or to prevent corrosion by sealing against the weather. Most sealants consist of two or more ingredients properly proportioned and compounded to obtain the best results. Some materials are ready for use as packaged, but others will require mixing before application.
One Part Sealants
One part sealants are prepared by the manufacturer and are ready for application as packaged. However, the consistency of some of these compounds may be altered to satisfy a particular method of application. If thinning is desired, use the thinner recommended by the sealant manufacturer.
Two Part Sealants
Two part sealants are compounds requiring separate packaging to prevent cure prior to application and are identified as the base sealing compound and the accelerator. Any alteration of the prescribed ratios will reduce the quality of the material. Generally, two-part sealants are mixed by combining equal portions (by weight) of base compound and accelerator.
All sealant material should be carefully weighed in accordance with the sealant manufacturer’s recommendations. Sealant material is usually weighed with a balance scale equipped with weights specially prepared for various quantities of sealant and accelerator.
Before weighing the sealant materials, thoroughly stir both the base sealant compound and the accelerator. Do not use accelerator which is dried out, lumpy, or flaky. Preweighed sealant kits do not require weighing of the sealant and accelerator before mixing when the entire quantity is to be mixed.
After determining the proper amount of base sealant compound and accelerator, add the accelerator to the base sealant compound. Immediately after adding the accelerator, thoroughly mix the two parts by stirring or folding, depending on the consistency of the material. Carefully mix the material to prevent entrapment of air in the mixture. Overly rapid or prolonged stirring will build up heat in the mixture and shorten the normal application time (working life) of the mixed sealant.
To ensure a well mixed compound, test by smearing a small portion on a clean, flat metal or glass surface. If flecks or lumps are found, continue mixing. If the flecks or lumps cannot be eliminated, reject the batch.
The working life of mixed sealant is from 1⁄2 hour to 4 hours (depending upon the class of sealant); therefore, apply mixed sealant as soon as possible or place in refrigerated storage. Figure 5-18 presents general information concerning various sealants.
The curing rate of mixed sealants varies with changes in temperature and humidity. Curing of sealants will be extremely slow if the temperature is below 60 °F. A temperature of 77 °F with 50 percent relative humidity is the ideal condition for curing most sealants.
Curing may be accelerated by increasing the temperature, but the temperature should never be allowed to exceed 120 °F at any time in the curing cycle. Heat may be applied by using infrared lamps or heated air. If heated air is used, it must be properly filtered to remove moisture and dirt.
Heat should not be applied to any faying surface sealant installation until all work is completed. All faying surface applications must have all attachments, permanent or temporary, completed within the application limitations of the sealant.
Sealant must be cured to a tack-free condition before applying brush top coatings. (Tack-free consistency is the point at which a sheet of cellophane pressed onto the sealant will no longer adhere.)