Reservoirs on aircraft designed for high-altitude flight are usually pressurized. Pressurizing assures a positive flow of fluid to the pump at high altitudes when low atmospheric pressures are encountered. On some aircraft, the reservoir is pressurized by bleed air taken from the compressor section of the engine. On others, the reservoir may be pressurized by hydraulic system pressure.
Air-pressurized reservoirs are used in many commercial transport-type aircraft. [Figures 12-9 and 12-10] Pressurization of the reservoir is required because the reservoirs are often located in wheel wells or other nonpressurized areas of the aircraft and at high altitude there is not enough atmospheric pressure to move the fluid to the pump inlet. Engine bleed air is used to pressurize the reservoir. The reservoirs are typically cylindrical in shape.
The following components are installed on a typical reservoir:
- Reservoir pressure relief valve—prevents over pressurization of the reservoir. Valve opens at a preset value.
- Sight glasses (low and overfull)—provides visual indication for flight crews and maintenance personnel that the reservoir needs to be serviced.
- Reservoir sample valve—used to draw a sample of hydraulic fluid for testing.
- Reservoir drain valve—used to drain the fluids out of the reservoir for maintenance operation.
- Reservoir temperature transducer—provides hydraulic fluid temperature information for the flight deck. [Figure 12-11]
- Reservoir quantity transmitter—transmits fluid quantity to the flight deck so that the flight crew can monitor fluid quantity during flight. [Figure 12-11]
A reservoir pressurization module is installed close to the reservoir. [Figure 12-12] The reservoir pressurization module supplies airplane bleed air to the reservoirs. The module consists of the following parts:
- Filters (2)
- Check valves (2)
- Test port
- Manual bleed valve
- Gauge port
A manual bleeder valve is incorporated into the module. During hydraulic system maintenance, it is necessary to relieve reservoir air pressure to assist in the installation and removal of components, lines, etc. This type of valve is small in size and has a push button installed in the outer case. When the bleeder valve push button is pushed, pressurized air from the reservoir flows through the valve to an overboard vent until the air pressure is depleted or the button is released. When the button is released, the internal spring causes the poppet to return to its seat. Some hydraulic fluid can escape from the manual bleed valve when the button is depressed.
Caution: Put a rag around the air bleed valve on the reservoir pressurization module to catch hydraulic fluid spray. Hydraulic fluid spray can cause injuries to persons.
Some aircraft hydraulic system reservoirs are pressurized by hydraulic system pressure. Regulated hydraulic pump output pressure is applied to a movable piston inside the cylindrical reservoir. This small piston is attached to and moves a larger piston against the reservoir fluid. The reduced force of the small piston when applied by the larger piston is adequate to provide head pressure for high altitude operation. The small piston protrudes out of the body of the reservoir. The amount exposed is used as a reservoir fluid quantity indicator. Figure 12-13 illustrates the concept behind the fluid-pressurized hydraulic reservoir.
The reservoir has five ports: pump suction, return, pressurizing, overboard drain, and bleed port. Fluid is supplied to the pump through the pump suction port. Fluid returns to the reservoir from the system through the return port. Pressure from the pump enters the pressurizing cylinder in the top of the reservoir through the pressurizing port. The overboard drain port drains the reservoir, when necessary, while performing maintenance. The bleed port is used as an aid in servicing the reservoir. When servicing a system equipped with this type of reservoir, place a container under the bleed drain port. The fluid should then be pumped into the reservoir until air-free fluid flows through the bleed drain port.
The reservoir fluid level is indicated by the markings on the part of the pressurizing cylinder that moves through the reservoir dust cover assembly. There are three fluid level markings indicated on the cover: full at zero system pressure (FULL ZERO PRESS), full when system is pressurized (FULL SYS PRESS), and REFILL. When the system is unpressurized and the pointer on the reservoir lies between the two full marks, a marginal reservoir fluid level is indicated. When the system is pressurized and the pointer lies between REFILL and FULL SYS PRESS, a marginal reservoir fluid level is also indicated.
Nonpressurized reservoirs can be serviced by pouring fluid directly into the reservoir through a filler strainer (finger strainer) assembly incorporated within the filler well to strain out impurities as the fluid enters the reservoir. Many reservoirs also have a quick disconnect service port at the bottom of the reservoir. A hydraulic filler unit can be connected to the service port to add fluid to the reservoir. This method reduces the chances of contamination of the reservoir. Aircraft that use pressurized reservoirs often have a central filling station in the ground service bay to service all reservoirs from a single point. [Figure 12-14]A built-in hand pump is available to draw fluid from a container through a suction line and pump it into the reservoirs. Additionally, a pressure fill port is available for attachment of a hydraulic mule or serving cart, which uses an external pump to push fluid into the aircraft hydraulic system. A check valve keeps the hand pump output from exiting the pressure fill port. A single filter is located downstream of both the pressure fill port and the hand pump to prevent the introduction of contaminants during fluid servicing.
It is very important to follow the maintenance instructions when servicing the reservoir. To get the correct results when the hydraulic fluid quantities are checked or the reservoirs are to be filled, the airplane should be in the correct configuration. Failure to do so could result in overservicing of the reservoir. This configuration could be different for each aircraft. The following service instructions are an example of a large transport-type aircraft.
Before servicing always make sure that the:
- Spoilers are retracted,
- Landing gear is down,
- Landing gear doors are closed,
- Thrust reversers are retracted, and
- Parking brake accumulator pressure reads at least 2,500 psi.