Evolution of Hydraulic Systems
Smaller aircraft have relatively low flight control surface loads, and the pilot can operate the flight controls by hand. Hydraulic systems were utilized for brake systems on early aircraft. When aircraft started to fly faster and got larger in size, the pilot was not able to move the control surfaces by hand anymore, and hydraulic power boost systems were introduced. Power boost systems assist the pilot in overcoming high control forces, but the pilot still actuates the flight controls by cable or push rod.
Many modern aircraft use a power supply system and fly-bywire flight control. The pilot input is electronically sent to the flight control servos. Cables or push rods are not used. Small power packs are the latest evolution of the hydraulic system. They reduce weight by eliminating hydraulic lines and large quantities of hydraulic fluid. Some manufacturers are reducing hydraulic systems in their aircraft in favor of electrically controlled systems. The Boeing 787 is the first aircraft designed with more electrical systems than hydraulic systems.
Hydraulic Power Pack System
A hydraulic power pack is a small unit that consists of an electric pump, filters, reservoir, valves, and pressure relief valve. [Figure 12-5] The advantage of the power pack is that there is no need for a centralized hydraulic power supply system and long stretches of hydraulic lines, which reduces weight. Power packs could be driven by either an engine gearbox or electric motor. Integration of essential valves, filters, sensors, and transducers reduces system weight, virtually eliminates any opportunity for external leakage, and simplifies troubleshooting. Some power pack systems have an integrated actuator. These systems are used to control the stabilizer trim, landing gear, or flight control surfaces directly, thus eliminating the need for a centralized hydraulic system.
Hydraulic System Components
Figure 12-6 is a typical example of a hydraulic system in a large commercial aircraft. The following sections discuss the components of such system in more detail.
The reservoir is a tank in which an adequate supply of fluid for the system is stored. Fluid flows from the reservoir to the pump, where it is forced through the system and eventually returned to the reservoir. The reservoir not only supplies the operating needs of the system, but it also replenishes fluid lost through leakage. Furthermore, the reservoir serves as an overflow basin for excess fluid forced out of the system by thermal expansion (the increase of fluid volume caused by temperature changes), the accumulators, and by piston and rod displacement.
The reservoir also furnishes a place for the fluid to purge itself of air bubbles that may enter the system. Foreign matter picked up in the system may also be separated from the fluid in the reservoir or as it flows through line filters. Reservoirs are either pressurized or nonpressurized.
Baffles and/or fins are incorporated in most reservoirs to keep the fluid within the reservoir from having random movement, such as vortexing (swirling) and surging. These conditions can cause fluid to foam and air to enter the pump along with the fluid. Many reservoirs incorporate strainers in the filler neck to prevent the entry of foreign matter during servicing. These strainers are made of fine mesh screening and are usually referred to as finger strainers because of their shape. Finger strainers should never be removed or punctured as a means of speeding up the pouring of fluid into the reservoir.
Reservoirs could have an internal trap to make sure fluid goes to the pumps during negative-G conditions.
Most aircraft have emergency hydraulic systems that take over if main systems fail. In many such systems, the pumps of both systems obtain fluid from a single reservoir. Under such circumstances, a supply of fluid for the emergency pump is ensured by drawing the hydraulic fluid from the bottom of the reservoir. The main system draws its fluid through a standpipe located at a higher level. With this arrangement, should the main system’s fluid supply become depleted, adequate fluid is left for operation of the emergency system. Figure 12-7 illustrates that the engine-driven pump (EDP) is not able to draw fluid any more if the reservoir gets depleted below the standpipe. The alternating current motor-driven pump (ACMP) still has a supply of fluid for emergency operations.Nonpressurized Reservoirs
Nonpressurized reservoirs are used in aircraft that are not designed for violent maneuvers, do not fly at high altitudes, or in which the reservoir is located in the pressurized area of the aircraft. High altitude in this situation means an altitude where atmospheric pressure is inadequate to maintain sufficient flow of fluid to the hydraulic pumps. Most nonpressurized reservoirs are constructed in a cylindrical shape. The outer housing is manufactured from a strong corrosion-resistant metal. Filter elements are normally installed within the reservoir to clean returning system hydraulic fluid.
In some of the older aircraft, a filter bypass valve is incorporated to allow fluid to bypass the filter in the event the filter becomes clogged. Reservoirs can be serviced by pouring fluid directly into the reservoir through a filler strainer (finger strainer) assembly incorporated within the filler well to strain out impurities as the fluid enters the reservoir. Generally, nonpressurized reservoirs use a visual gauge to indicate the fluid quantity. Gauges incorporated on or in the reservoir may be a direct reading glass tube-type or a float-type rod that is visible through a transparent dome. In some cases, the fluid quantity may also be read in the cockpit through the use of quantity transmitters. A typical nonpressurized reservoir is shown in Figure 12-8. This reservoir consists of a welded body and cover assembly clamped together. Gaskets are incorporated to seal against leakage between assemblies.
Nonpressurized reservoirs are slightly pressurized due to thermal expansion of fluid and the return of fluid to the reservoir from the main system. This pressure ensures that there is a positive flow of fluids to the inlet ports of the hydraulic pumps. Most reservoirs of this type are vented directly to the atmosphere or cabin with only a check valve and filter to control the outside air source. The reservoir system includes a pressure and vacuum relief valve. The purpose of the valve is to maintain a differential pressure range between the reservoir and cabin. A manual air bleed valve is installed on top of the reservoir to vent the reservoir. The valve is connected to the reservoir vent line to allow depressurization of the reservoir. The valve is actuated prior to servicing the reservoir to prevent fluid from being blown out of the filler as the cap is being removed. The manual bleed valve also needs to be actuated if hydraulic components need to be replaced.