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## Phase Relationships

In addition to frequency and cycle characteristics, alternating voltage and current also have a relationship called “phase.” In a circuit that is fed (supplied) by one alternator, there must be a certain phase relationship between voltage and current if the circuit is to function efficiently. In a system fed by two or more alternators, not only must there be a certain phase relationship between voltage and current of one alternator, but there must be a phase relationship between the individual voltages and the individual currents. Also, two separate circuits can be compared by comparing the phase characteristics of one to the phase characteristics of the other.

**In Phase Condition**

Figure 12-112A shows a voltage signal and a current signal superimposed on the same time axis. Notice that when the voltage increases in the positive alternation that the current also increases. When the voltage reaches its peak value, so does the current. Both waveforms then reverse and decrease back to a zero magnitude, then proceed in the same manner in the negative direction as they did in the positive direction. When two waves, such as these in Figure 12-112A, are exactly in step with each other, they are said to be in phase. To be in phase, the two waveforms must go through their maximum and minimum points at the same time and in the same direction.

**Out of Phase Condition**

When two waveforms go through their maximum and minimum points at different times, a phase difference exists between the two. In this case, the two wave-forms are said to be out of phase with each other. The terms lead and lag are often used to describe the phase difference between waveforms. The waveform that reaches its maximum or minimum value first is said to lead the other waveform. Figure 12-112B shows this relationship. Voltage source one starts to rise at the 0° position and voltage source two starts to rise at the 90° position. Because voltage source one begins its rise earlier in time (90°) in relation to the second voltage source, it is said to be leading the second source. On the other hand, the second source is said to be lagging the first source. When a waveform is said to be leading or lagging, the difference in degrees is usually stated. If the two waveforms differ by 360°, they are said to be in phase with each other. If there is a 180° difference between the two signals, then they are still out of phase even though they are both reaching their minimum and maximum values at the same time. [Figure 12-112]

A practical note of caution: When encountering an aircraft that has two or more AC busses in use, it is possible that they may be split and not synchronized to be in phase with each other. When two signals that are not locked in phase are mixed, much damage can occur to aircraft systems or avionics.

## Values of Alternating Current

There are three values of AC: instantaneous, peak, and effective root mean square (RMS).

**Instantaneous Value**

An instantaneous value of voltage or current is the induced voltage or current flowing at any instant during a cycle. The sine wave represents a series of these values. The instantaneous value of the voltage varies from zero at 0° to maximum at 90°, back to zero at 180°, to maximum in the opposite direction at 270°, and to zero again at 360°. Any point on the sine wave is considered the instantaneous value of voltage.

**Peak Value**

The peak value is the largest instantaneous value. The largest single positive value occurs when the sine wave of voltage is at 90°, and the largest single negative value occurs when it is at 270°. Maximum value is 1.41 times the effective value. These are called peak values.

**Effective Value**

The effective value is also known as the RMS value or root mean square, which refers to the mathematical process by which the value is derived. Most AC voltmeters display the effective or RMS value when used. The effective value is less than the maximum value, being equal to .707 times the maximum value.

The effective value of a sine wave is actually a measure of the heating effect of the sine wave. Figure 12-113 illustrates what happens when a resistor is connected across an AC voltage source. In Figure 12-113A, a certain amount of heat is generated by the power in the resistor. Figure 12-113B shows the same resistor now inserted into a DC voltage source. The value of the DC voltage source can now be adjusted so that the resistor dissipates the same amount of heat as it did when it was in the AC circuit. The RMS or effective value of a sine wave is equal to the DC voltage that produces the same amount of heat as the sinusoidal voltage.

The peak value of a sine wave can be converted to the corresponding RMS value using the following relationship.

This can be applied to either voltage or current.

Algebraically rearranging the formula and solving for Vp can also determine the peak voltage. The resulting formula is:

Thus, the 110 volt value given for AC supplied to homes is only 0.707 of the maximum voltage of this supply. The maximum voltage is approximately 155 volts (110 × 1.41 = 155 volts maximum).

In the study of AC, any values given for current or voltage are assumed to be effective values unless otherwise specified. In practice, only the effective values of voltage and current are used. Similarly, AC voltmeters and ammeters measure the effective value.

## Opposition to Current Flow of AC

There are three factors that can create an opposition to the flow of electrons (current) in an AC circuit. Resistance, similar to resistance of DC circuits, is measured in ohms and has a direct influence on AC regardless of frequency. Inductive reactance and capacitive reactance, on the other hand, oppose current flow only in AC circuits, not in DC circuits. Since AC constantly changes direction and intensity, inductors and capacitors may also create an opposition to current flow in AC circuits. It should also be noted that inductive reactance and capacitive reactance may create a phase shift between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. Whenever analyzing an AC circuit, it is very important to consider the resistance, inductive reactance, and the capacitive reactance. All three have an effect on the current of that circuit.