Sheet metal forming dates back to the days of the blacksmith who used a hammer and hot oven to mold metal into the desired form. Today’s aircraft technician relies on a wide variety of powered and hand-operated tools to precisely bend and fold sheet metal to achieve the perfect shape. Forming tools include straight line machines, such as the bar folder and press brake, as well as rotary machines, such as the slip roll former. Forming sheet metal requires a variety of tools and equipment (both powered and manual), such as the piccolo former, shrinking and stretching tools, form blocks, and specialized hammers and mallets. [Figure 4-55]
Tempered sheet stock is used in forming operations whenever possible in typical repairs. Forming that is performed in the tempered condition, usually at room temperature, is known as cold-forming. Cold forming eliminates heat treatment and the straightening and checking operations required to remove the warp and twist caused by the heat treating process. Cold-formed sheet metal experiences a phenomenon known as spring-back, which causes the worked piece to spring back slightly when the deforming force is removed. If the material shows signs of cracking during cold forming over small radii, the material should be formed in the annealed condition.
Annealing, the process of toughening steel by gradually heating and cooling it, removes the temper from metal, making it softer and easier to form. Parts containing small radii or compound curvatures must be formed in the annealed condition. After forming, the part is heat treated to a tempered condition before use on the aircraft.
Construction of interchangeable structural and nonstructural parts is achieved by forming flat sheet stock to make channel, angle, zee, and hat section members. Before a sheet metal part is formed, a flat pattern is made to show how much material is required in the bend areas, at what point the sheet must be inserted into the forming tool, or where bend lines are located. Determination of bend lines and bend allowances is discussed in greater detail in the section on layout and forming.
Bar Folding Machine
The bar folder is designed for use in making bends or folds along edges of sheets. [Figure 4-56] This machine is best suited for folding small hems, flanges, seams, and edges to be wired. Most bar folders have a capacity for metal up to 22 gauge in thickness and 42 inches in length. Before using the bar folder, several adjustments must be made for thickness of material, width of fold, sharpness of fold, and angle of fold. The adjustment for thickness of material is made by adjusting the screws at each end of the folder. As this adjustment is made, place a piece of metal of the desired thickness in the folder and raise the operating handle until the small roller rests on the cam. Hold the folding blade in this position and adjust the setscrews until the metal is clamped securely and evenly the full length of the folding blade. After the folder has been adjusted, test each end of the machine separately with a small piece of metal by actually folding it.
There are two positive stops on the folder, one for 45° folds or bends and the other for 90° folds or bends. A collar is provided that can be adjusted to any degree of bend within the capacity of the machine.
For forming angles of 45° or 90°, the appropriate stop is moved into place. This allows the handle to be moved forward to the correct angle. For forming other angles, the adjustable collar is used. This is accomplished by loosening the setscrew and setting the stop at the desired angle. After setting the stop, tighten the setscrew and complete the bend. To make the fold, adjust the machine correctly and then insert the metal. The metal goes between the folding blade and the jaw. Hold the metal firmly against the gauge and pull the operating handle toward the body. As the handle is brought forward, the jaw automatically raises and holds the metal until the desired fold is made. When the handle is returned to its original position, the jaw and blade return to their original positions and release the metal.
A brake is similar to a bar folder because it is also used for turning or bending the edges of sheet metal. The cornice brake is more useful than the bar folder because its design allows the sheet metal to be folded or formed to pass through the jaws from front to rear without obstruction. [Figure 4-57] In contrast, the bar folder can form a bend or edge only as wide as the depth of its jaws. Thus, any bend formed on a bar folder can also be made on the cornice brake.
In making ordinary bends with the cornice brake, the sheet is placed on the bed with the sight line (mark indicating line of bend) directly under the edge of the clamping bar. The clamping bar is then brought down to hold the sheet firmly in place. The stop at the right side of the brake is set for the proper angle or amount of bend and the bending leaf is raised until it strikes the stop. If other bends are to be made, the clamping bar is lifted and the sheet is moved to the correct position for bending.
The bending capacity of a cornice brake is determined by the manufacturer. Standard capacities of this machine are from 12- to 22-gauge sheet metal, and bending lengths are from 3 to 12 feet. The bending capacity of the brake is determined by the bending edge thickness of the various bending leaf bars. Most metals have a tendency to return to their normal shape—a characteristic known as spring-back. If the cornice brake is set for a 90° bend, the metal bent probably forms an angle of about 87° to 88°. Therefore, if a bend of 90° is desired, set the cornice brake to bend an angle of about 93° to allow for spring-back.
Box and Pan Brake (Finger Brake)
The box and pan brake, often called the finger brake because it is equipped with a series of steel fingers of varying widths, lacks the solid upper jaw of the cornice brake. [Figure 4-58] The box and pan brake can be used to do everything that the cornice brake can do, as well as several things the cornice brake cannot do.
The box and pan brake is used to form boxes, pans, and other similar shaped objects. If these shapes were formed on a cornice brake, part of the bend on one side of the box would have to be straightened in order to make the last bend. With a finger brake, simply remove the fingers that are in the way and use only the fingers required to make the bend. The fingers are secured to the upper leaf by thumbscrews. All the fingers not removed for an operation must be securely seated and firmly tightened before the brake is used. The radius of the nose on the clamping fingers is usually rather small and frequently requires nose radius shims to be custom made for the total length of the bend.
Since most cornice brakes and box and pan brakes are limited to a maximum forming capacity of approximately 0.090 inch annealed aluminum, 0.063-inch 7075T6, or 0.063-inch stainless steel, operations that require the forming of thicker and more complex parts use a press brake. [Figure 4-59] The press brake is the most common machine tool used to bend sheet metal and applies force via mechanical and/or hydraulic components to shape the sheet metal between the punch and die. Narrow U-channels (especially with long legs) and hat channel stringers can be formed on the press brake by using special gooseneck or offset dies. Special urethane lower dies are useful for forming channels and stringers. Power press brakes can be set up with back stops (some are computer controlled) for high volume production. Press brake operations are usually done manually and require skill and knowledge of safe use.