Carburetor Air Temperature (CAT) Indicator
Measured at the carburetor entrance, carburetor air temperature (CAT) is regarded by many as an indication of induction system ice formation. Although it serves this purpose, it also provides many other important items of information.
The powerplant is a heat machine, and the temperature of its components, or the fluids flowing through it, affects the combustion process either directly or indirectly. The temperature level of the induction air affects not only the charge density, but also the vaporization of the fuel. CAT is also useful for checking induction system condition. Backfiring is indicated as a momentary rise on the gauge, provided it is of sufficient severity for the heat to be sensed at the carburetor air-measuring point. A sustained induction system fire shows a continuous increase of CAT.
The CAT should be noted before starting and just after shutdown. The temperature before starting is the best indication of the temperature of the fuel in the carburetor body, and tells whether vaporization is sufficient for the initial firing, or whether the mixture must be augmented by priming. If an engine has been shut down for only a short time, the residual heat in the carburetor may make it possible to rely on the vaporizing heat in the fuel and powerplant. Priming would then be unnecessary.
After shutdown, a high CAT is a warning that the fuel trapped in the carburetor will expand, producing high internal pressure. When a high temperature is present at this time, the fuel line and manifold valves should be open so that the pressure can be relieved by allowing fuel passage back to the tank. The CAT gauge indicates the temperature of the air before it enters the carburetor. The temperature reading is sensed by a bulb or electric sensor. In the test cell, the sensor is located in the air intake passage to the engine and, in an aircraft it is located in the ram-air intake duct. The CAT gauge is calibrated in the centigrade scale. [Figure 10-35] This gauge, like many other multi-engine aircraft instruments, is a dual gauge; two gauges, each with a separate pointer and scale, are used in the same case.
Notice the range markings used. The yellow arc indicates a range from –10 °C to +15 °C, since the danger of icing occurs between these temperatures. The green range indicates the normal operating range from +15 °C to +40 °C. The red line indicates the maximum operating temperature of 40 °C; any operation at a temperature over this value places the engine in danger of detonation.
Fuel Pressure Indicator
The fuel pressure gauge is calibrated in pounds per square inch (psi) of pressure. It is used during the test run-in to measure engine fuel pressure at the carburetor inlet, the fuel feed valve discharge nozzle, and the main fuel supply line. Fuel gauges are located in the operator’s control room and are connected by flexible lines to the different points at which pressure readings are desired during the testing procedures.
In some aircraft installations, the fuel pressure is sensed at the carburetor or fuel injection unit inlet of each engine, and the pressure is indicated on individual gauges on the instrument panel. [Figure 10-36] The dial is calibrated in graduations and is extended and numbered. The numbers range from 0 to 10 in this example. The red line on the dial at the 2 pounds psi graduation shows the minimum fuel pressure allowed during flight. The green arc shows the desired range of operation, which is 2 to 9 psi. The red line at the 9 psi graduation indicates the maximum allowable fuel pressure. Fuel pressures vary with the type of fuel system installation and the size of the engine. When fuel injection systems are used, the fuel pressure range is much higher; the minimum allowable pressure is approximately 10 psi, and the maximum is generally 25 psi.
Oil Pressure Indicator
The main oil pressure reading is taken at the pressure side of the oil pump. Generally, there is only one oil pressure gauge for each aircraft engine. The oil pressure gauge dial does not show the pressure range or limits for all installations. [Figure 10-36] The actual markings for specific aircraft may be found in the aircraft specifications or Type Certificate Data Sheets. The lower red line at 25 psi indicates the minimum oil pressure permissible in flight. The green arc between 60 to 85 psi illustrates the desired operating oil pressure range. The red line at 100 psi indicates maximum permissible oil pressure.
The oil pressure gauge indicates the pressure, in psi, that the oil of the lubricating system is being supplied to the moving parts of the engine. The engine should be shut down immediately if the gauge fails to register pressure when the engine is operating. Excessive oscillation of the gauge pointer indicates that there is air in the lines leading to the gauge, or that some unit of the oil system is functioning improperly.
Oil Temperature Indicator
During engine run-in in the test cell, engine oil temperature readings are taken at the oil inlet and outlet. From these readings, it can be determined if the engine heat transferred to the oil is low, normal, or excessive. This information is of extreme importance during the breaking-in process of large reciprocating engines. The oil temperature gauge line in the aircraft is connected at the oil inlet to the engine.
Three range markings are used on the oil temperature gauge. The green arc in Figure 10-36, on the dial, shows the minimum oil temperature permissible for ground operational checks or during flight. The green mark between 25 °F and below 245 °F shows the desired oil temperature for continuous engine operation. The red mark at 245 °F indicates the maximum permissible oil temperature.
Fuel Flow Meter
The fuel flow meter measures the amount of fuel delivered to the engine. During engine testing procedures, the fuel flow to the engine can be measured by three different methods: a direct flow meter, a pressure-based flow meter, or a turbine senor-based flow meter. The direct reading flow meter uses a series of calibrated tubes located in the control room. The tubes are of various sizes to indicate different volumes of fuel flow. Each tube contains a float that can be seen by the operator, and as the fuel flow through the tube varies, the float is either raised or lowered, indicating the amount of fuel flow. From these indications, the operator can determine whether an engine is operating at the correct fuel/air mixture for a given power setting. Reciprocating engines on light aircraft usually use a fuel pressure gauge that is also used for the flowmeter. This is because the fuel flow is proportional to the fuel pressure in this system. Fuel flow is measured normally in gallons per hour.
In most turbine aircraft installations, the fuel flow indicating system consists of a transmitter and an indicator for each engine. The fuel flow transmitter is conveniently mounted in the engine’s accessory section and measures the fuel flow between the engine-driven fuel pump and the fuel control device. The transmitter is an electrical device that contains a turbine that turns faster as the flow increases, which increases the electrical signal to the indicator. The fuel flow transmitter is connected electrically to the indicator located on the aircraft flight deck, or on the test cell operator’s panel. The reading on the indicator on turbine aircraft is calibrated to record the amount of fuel flow in pounds of fuel per hour.