This system usually consists of an indicator, electrical wiring, and a thermocouple. The wiring is between the instrument and the nacelle firewall. At the firewall, one end of the thermocouple leads connects to the electrical wiring, and the other end of the thermocouple leads connects to the cylinder. The thermocouple consists of two dissimilar metals, generally constantan and iron, connected by wiring to an indicating system. If the temperature of the junction is different from the temperature where the dissimilar metals are connected to wires, a voltage is produced. This voltage sends a current through wires to the indicator, a current-measuring instrument graduated in degrees.
The thermocouple end that connects to the cylinder is either the bayonet or gasket type. To install the bayonet type, the knurled nut is pushed down and turned clockwise until it is snug. [Figure 6-58] In removing this type, the nut is pushed down and turned counterclockwise until released. The gasket type fits under the spark plug and replaces the normal spark plug gasket. [Figure 6-59] When installing a thermocouple lead, remember not to cut off the lead because it is too long, but coil and tie up the excess length. The thermocouple is designed to produce a given amount of resistance. If the length of the lead is reduced, an incorrect temperature reading results. The bayonet or gasket of the thermocouple is inserted or installed on the hottest cylinder of the engine, as determined in the block test. When the thermocouple is installed and the wiring connected to the instrument, the indicated reading is the cylinder temperature. Prior to operating the engine, provided it is at ambient temperature, the cylinder head temperature indicator indicates the free outside air temperature; that is one test for determining that the instrument is working correctly. The cover glass of the cylinder head temperature indicator should be checked regularly to see that it has not slipped or cracked. The cover glass should be checked for indications of missing or damaged decals that indicate temperature limitations. If the thermocouple leads were excessive in length and had to be coiled and tied down, the tie should be inspected for security or chafing of the wire. The bayonet or gasket should be inspected for cleanness and security of mounting. When operating the engine, all of the electrical connections should be checked if the cylinder head temperature pointer fluctuates.
Exhaust Gas Temperature Indicating Systems
The exhaust gas temperature indicator consists of a thermocouple placed in the exhaust stream just after the cylinder port. [Figure 6-60] It is then connected to the instrument in the instrument panel. This allows for the adjustment of the mixture, which has a large effect on engine temperature. By using this instrument to set the mixture, the engine temperature can be controlled and monitored.