Resin Injection Repairs
Resin injection repairs are used on lightly loaded structures for small damages to a solid laminate due to delamination. Two holes are drilled on the outside of the delamination area and a low-viscosity resin is injected in one hole until it flows out the other hole. Resin injection repairs are sometimes used on sandwich honeycomb structure to repair a facesheet disbond. Disadvantages of the resin injection method are that the fibers are cut as a result of drilling holes, it is difficult to remove moisture from the damaged area, and it is difficult to achieve complete infusion of resin. [Figure 7-67]
Composite Patch Bonded to Aluminum Structure
Composite materials can be used to structurally repair, restore, or enhance aluminum, steel, and titanium components. Bonded composite doublers have the ability to slow or stop fatigue crack growth, replace lost structural area due to corrosion grindouts, and structurally enhance areas with small and negative margins.
Boron epoxy, GLARE®, and graphite epoxy materials have been used as composite patches to restore damaged metallic wing skins, fuselage sections, floor beams, and bulkheads. As a crack growth inhibitor, the stiff bonded composite materials constrain the cracked area, reduce the gross stress in the metal, and provide an alternate load path around the crack. As a structural enhancement or blendout filler, the high modulus fiber composites offer negligible aerodynamic resistance and tailorable properties.
Surface preparation is very important to achieve the adhesive strength. Grit blast silane and phosphoric acid anodizing are used to prepare aluminum skin. Film adhesives using a 250 °F (121 °C) cure are used routinely to bond the doublers to the metallic structure. Critical areas of the installation process include a good thermal cure control, having and maintaining water free bond surfaces, and chemically and physically prepared bond surfaces.
Secondarily bonded precured doublers and in-situ cured doublers have been used on a variety of structural geometries ranging from fuselage frames to door cutouts to blade stiffeners. Vacuum bags are used to apply the bonding and curing pressure between the doubler and metallic surface.
Fiberglass Molded Mat Repairs
Fiberglass molded mats consists of short fibers, and the strength is much less than other composite products that use continuous fibers. Fiberglass molded mats are not used for structural repair applications, but could be used for nonstructural applications. The fiberglass molded mat is typically used in combination with fiberglass fabric. The molded mats are impregnated with resin just like a wet layup for fiberglass fabric. The advantage of the molded mat is the lower cost and the ease of use.
Aircraft radomes, being an electronic window for the radar, are often made of nonconducting honeycomb sandwich structure with only three or four plies of fiberglass. The skins are so thin so that they do not block the radar signals. The thin structure, combined with the location in front of the aircraft, makes the radome vulnerable to hail damage, bird strikes, and lightning strikes. Low-impact damage could lead to disbonds and delamination. Often, water is found in the radome structure due to impact damage or erosion. The moisture collects in the core material and begins a freezethaw cycle each time the airplane is flown. This eventually breaks down the honeycomb material causing a soft spot on the radome itself. Damage to a radome needs to be repaired quickly to avoid further damage and radar signal obstructions. Trapped water or moisture can produce a shadow on the radar image and severely degrade the performance of the radar. To detect water ingression in radomes, the available NDE techniques include x-ray radiography, infrared thermography, and a radome moisture meter that measures the RF power loss caused by the presence of water. The repairs to radomes are similar to repairs to other honeycomb structures, but the technician needs to realize that repairs could affect the radar performance. A special tool is necessary to repair severely damaged radomes. [Figure 7-68]
Transmissivity testing after radome repair ensures that the radar signal is transmitted properly through the radome. Radomes have lightning protections strips bonded to the outside of the radome to dissipate the energy of a lighting strike. It is important that these lightning protection strips are in good condition to avoid damage to the radome structure. Typical failures of lightning protection strips that are found during inspection are high resistance caused by shorts in the strips or attaching hardware and disbonding of the strips from the radome surface. [Figures 7-69]
External Bonded Patch Repairs
Repairs to damaged composite structures can be made with an external patch. The external patch repair could be made with prepreg, a wet layup, or a precured patch. External patches are usually stepped to reduce the stress concentration at the edge of the patch. The disadvantages of the external patch are the eccentricity of the loading that causes peel stresses and the protrusion of the patch in the air stream. The advantage of the external patch is that it is easier to accomplish than a flush scarf-type repair.
External Bonded Repair With Prepreg Plies
The repair methods for carbon, fiberglass, and Kevlar® are similar. Fiberglass is sometimes used to repair Kevlar® material. The main steps in repairing damage with an external patch are investigating and mapping the damage, removal of the damage, layup of the repair plies, vacuum bagging, curing, and finish coating.
Step 1: Investigating and Mapping the Damage
Use the tap test or ultrasonic test to map out the damage.
Step 2: Damage Removal
Trim out the damage to a smooth round or oval shape. Use scotch or sand paper to rough up the parent surface at least 1 inch larger than the patch size. Clean the surface with an approved solvent and cheese cloth.
Step 3: Layup of the Repair Plies
Use the SRM to determine the number, size, and orientation of the repair plies. The repair ply material and orientation must be the same as the orientation of the parent structure. The repair can be stepped to reduce peel stresses at the edges.
Step 4: Vacuum Bagging
A film adhesive is placed over the damaged area and the repair layup is placed on top of the repair. The vacuum bagging materials are placed on top of the repair (see Prepreg Layup and Controlled Bleed Out) and a vacuum is applied.
Step 5: Curing the Repair
The prepreg patch can be cured with a heater blanket that is placed inside the vacuum bag, oven, or autoclave when the part can be removed from the aircraft. Most prepregs and film adhesives cure at either 250 °F or 350 °F. Consult the SRM for the correct cure cycle.
Step 6: Applying Top Coat
Remove the vacuum bag from the repair after the cure and inspect the repair, remove the patch if the repair is not satisfactory. Lightly sand the repair and apply a protective topcoating.
External Repair Using Wet Layup and Double Vacuum Debulk Method (DVD)
Generally, the properties of a wet layup repair are not as good as a repair with prepreg material; but by using a DVD method, the properties of the wet layup process can be improved. The DVD process is a technique to remove entrapped air that causes porosity in wet layup laminates. The DVD process is often used to make patches for solid laminate structures for complex contoured surfaces. The wet layup patch is prepared in a DVD tool and then secondary bonded to the aircraft structure. [Figure 7-70] The laminating process is similar to a standard wet layup process. The difference is how the patch is cured.Double Vacuum Debulk Principle
The double vacuum bag process is used to fabricate wet layup or prepreg repair laminates. Place the impregnated fabric within the debulking assembly, shown in Figure 7-70. To begin the debulking process, evacuate the air within the inner flexible vacuum bag. Then, seal the rigid outer box onto the inner vacuum bag, and evacuate the volume of air between the rigid outer box and inner vacuum bag. Since the outer box is rigid, the second evacuation prevents atmospheric pressure from pressing down on the inner vacuum bag over the patch. This subsequently prevents air bubbles from being pinched off within the laminate and facilitates air removal by the inner vacuum. Next, heat the laminate to a predetermined debulking temperature in order to reduce the resin viscosity and further improve the removal of air and volatiles from the laminate. Apply the heat through a heat blanket that is controlled with thermocouples placed directly on the heat blanket. Once the debulking cycle is complete, compact the laminate to consolidate the plies by venting the vacuum source attached to the outer rigid box, allowing atmospheric pressure to reenter the box and provide positive pressure against the inner vacuum bag. Upon completion of the compaction cycle, remove the laminate from the assembly and prepare for cure.
DVD tools can be purchased commercially but can also be fabricated locally from wood two by fours and sheets of plywood, as illustrated in Figure 7-70.
Patch Installation on the Aircraft
After the patch comes out of the DVD tool, it is still possible to form it to the contour of the aircraft, but the time is typically limited to 10 minutes. Place a film adhesive, or paste adhesive, on the aircraft skin and place the patch on the aircraft. Use a vacuum bag and heater blanket to cure the adhesive. [Figures 7-71 and 7-72]