There are three basic kinds of instruments classified by the job they perform: flight instruments, engine instruments, and navigation instruments. There are also miscellaneous gauges and indicators that provide information that do not fall into these classifications, especially on large complex aircraft. Flight control position, cabin environmental systems, electrical power, and auxiliary power units (APUs), for example, are all monitored and controlled from the cockpit via the use of instruments systems. All may be regarded as position/condition instruments since they usually report the position of a certain moveable component on the aircraft, or the condition of various aircraft components or systems not included in the first three groups.
The instruments used in controlling the aircraft’s flight attitude are known as the flight instruments. There are basic flight instruments, such as the altimeter that displays aircraft altitude; the airspeed indicator; and the magnetic direction indicator, a form of compass. Additionally, an artificial horizon, turn coordinator, and vertical speed indicator are flight instruments present in most aircraft. Much variation exists for these instruments, which is explained throughout this section. Over the years, flight instruments have come to be situated similarly on the instrument panels in most aircraft. This basic T arrangement for flight instruments is shown in Figure 10-4. The top center position directly in front of the pilot and copilot is the basic display position for the artificial horizon even in modern glass cockpits (those with solid-state, flat-panel screen indicating systems).
Original analog flight instruments are operated by air pressure and the use of gyroscopes. This avoids the use of electricity, which could put the pilot in a dangerous situation if the aircraft lost electrical power. Development of sensing and display techniques, combined with advanced aircraft electrical systems, has made it possible for reliable primary and secondary instrument systems that are electrically operated. Nonetheless, often a pneumatic altimeter, a gyro artificial horizon, and a magnetic direction indicator are retained somewhere in the instrument panel for redundancy. [Figure 10-5]
Engine instruments are those designed to measure operating parameters of the aircraft’s engine(s). These are usually quantity, pressure, and temperature indications. They also include measuring engine speed(s). The most common engine instruments are the fuel and oil quantity and pressure gauges, tachometers, and temperature gauges. Figure 10-6 contains various engine instruments found on reciprocating and turbine-powered aircraft.Engine instrumentation is often displayed in the center of the cockpit where it is easily visible to the pilot and copilot. [Figure 10-7] On light aircraft requiring only one flight crewmember, this may not be the case. Multiengine aircraft often use a single gauge for a particular engine parameter, but it displays information for all engines through the use of multiple pointers on the same dial face.
Navigation instruments are those that contribute information used by the pilot to guide the aircraft along a definite course. This group includes compasses of various kinds, some of which incorporate the use of radio signals to define a specific course while flying the aircraft en route from one airport to another. Other navigational instruments are designed specifically to direct the pilot’s approach to landing at an airport. Traditional navigation instruments include a clock and a magnetic compass. Along with the airspeed indicator and wind information, these can be used to calculate navigational progress. Radios and instruments sending locating information via radio waves have replaced these manual efforts in modern aircraft. Global position systems (GPS) use satellites to pinpoint the location of the aircraft via geometric triangulation. This technology is built into some aircraft instrument packages for navigational purposes. [Figure 10-8]To understand how various instruments work and can be repaired and maintained, they can be classified according to the principle upon which they operate. Some use mechanical methods to measure pressure and temperature. Some utilize magnetism and electricity to sense and display a parameter. Others depend on the use of gyroscopes in their primary workings. Still others utilize solid state sensors and computers to process and display important information. In the following sections, the different operating principles for sensing parameters are explained. Then, an overview of many of the engine, flight, and navigation instruments is given.