Turbocharger Controllers and System Descriptions (Part Two)

in Induction and Exhaust Systems

Variable Absolute Pressure Controller (VAPC)

The VAPC contains an oil control valve similar to the other controllers that were discussed. [Figure 3-21] The oil restrictor is actuated by an aneroid bellows that is referenced to upper deck pressure. A cam connected to the throttle mechanism applies pressure to the restrictor valve and aneroid. As the throttle is opened to greater values, the cam applies a greater pressure to the aneroid. This increases the amount of upper deck pressure necessary to compress the aneroid and thereby open the oil restrictor valve. This means that the scheduled absolute value of upper deck pressure that is required to overcome the aneroid is variable by throttle position. As the throttle is opened wide, the manifold pressure and upper deck pressure requirements greatly increase.

Figure 3-21. A diagram of a variable absolute pressure controller (VAPC).

Figure 3-21. A diagram of a variable absolute pressure controller (VAPC).

Sloped Controller

The sloped controller is designed to maintain the rated compressor discharge pressure at wide-open throttle and to reduce this pressure at part throttle settings. [Figure 3-22] A diaphragm, coupled with a spring-supported bellows for absolute pressure reference, is exposed to deck pressure and intake manifold pressure through ports located before and after the throttle, respectively. This arrangement constantly monitors deck pressure and the pressure differential between the deck and manifold pressure due to a partially closed throttle. If either deck pressure or throttle differential pressure rises, the controller poppet opens and decreases turbocharger discharge (deck) pressure. The sloped controller is more sensitive to the throttle differential pressure than to deck pressure, thereby accomplishing deck pressure reduction as the throttle is closed.

Figure 3-22. A diagram of a sloped controller used to maintain the rated compressor discharge pressure at wide-open throttle.

Figure 3-22. A diagram of a sloped controller used to maintain the rated compressor discharge pressure at wide-open throttle.

Absolute Pressure Controller

One device used to control the speed and output of the turbocharger, but controls the system only at maximum output, is the absolute pressure controller. The absolute pressure controller contains an aneroid bellows that is referenced to upper deck pressure. It operates the wastegate, which diverts, more or less, exhaust gas over the turbine. As an absolute pressure setting is reached, it bypasses oil, and relieves the pressure on the waste gate actuator. This allows the absolute pressure controller to control the maximum turbocharger compressor discharge pressure. The turbocharger is completely automatic, requiring no pilot action up to the critical altitude.

Turbocharger System Troubleshooting

Figure 3-23 includes some of the most common turbocharger system malfunctions together with their cause and repair. These troubleshooting procedures are presented as a guide only and should not be substituted for applicable manufacturer’s instructions or troubleshooting procedures.

Figure 3-23. Common issues when troubleshooting turbocharger systems.

Figure 3-23. Common issues when troubleshooting turbocharger systems.

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