The FADEC System – Impulse Coupling

in Engine Ignition and Electrical Systems

Many opposed reciprocating engines are equipped with an impulse coupling as the auxiliary starting system. An impulse coupling gives one of the magnetos attached to the engine, generally the left, a brief acceleration, that produces an intense spark for starting. This device consists of a cam and flyweight assembly, spring, and a body assembly. [Figure 4-27] The assembled impulse coupling is shown installed on a typical magneto in Figure 4-28.

Figure 4-27. Parts of an impulse coupling.

Figure 4-27. Parts of an impulse coupling.

Figure 4-28. Impulse coupling on a magneto.

Figure 4-28. Impulse coupling on a magneto.

The magneto is flexibly connected through the impulse coupling by means of the spring so that at low speed the magneto is temporarily held. [Figure 4-29] The flyweight, because of slow rotation, catches on a stud or stop pins, and the magneto spring is wound as the engine continues to turn. The engine continues to rotate until the piston of the cylinder to be fired reaches approximately a top dead center position. At this point, the magneto flyweight contacts the body of the impulse coupling and is released. The spring kicks back to its original position, resulting in a quick twist of the rotating magnet of the magneto. [Figure 4-30] This, being equivalent to high-speed magneto rotation, produces a spark that jumps the gap at the spark plug electrodes.

Figure 4-29. Flyweights engage stop pins.

Figure 4-29. Flyweights engage stop pins.

Figure 4-30. Flyweight contacts body, releasing impulse coupling to spin.

Figure 4-30. Flyweight contacts body, releasing impulse coupling to spin.

The impulse coupling has performed two functions: rotating the magneto fast enough to produce a good spark and retarding the timing of the spark during the start cycle. After the engine is started and the magneto reaches a speed at which it furnishes sufficient current, the flyweights in the impulse coupling fly outward due to centrifugal force or rapid rotation. This action prevents the two flyweight coupling members from contact with the stop pin. That makes it a solid unit, returning the magneto to a normal timing position relative to the engine. The presence of an impulse coupling is identified by a sharp clicking noise as the crankshaft is turned at starter cranking speed past top center on each cylinder.

A problem that can arise from impulse couplings is that the flyweights can become magnetized and not engage the stop pins. Congealed oil or sludge on the flyweights during cold weather may produce the same results. This prevents the flyweight weights from engaging the stop pins, which results in no starting spark being produced. Wear can cause problems with impulse couplings. They should be inspected and any maintenance should be performed as set forth by the manufacturer. Another disadvantage of the impulse coupling is that it can produce only one spark for each firing cycle of the cylinder. This is a disadvantage, especially during adverse starting conditions. Even with these disadvantages, the impulse coupling is still in wide use.

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