Stability and Control

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

An aircraft must have sufficient stability to maintain a uniform flightpath and recover from the various upsetting forces. Also, to achieve the best performance, the aircraft must have the proper response to the movement of the controls. Control is the pilot action of moving the flight controls, providing the aerodynamic force that induces the aircraft […]

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Thrust and Drag

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

An aircraft in flight is the center of a continuous battle of forces. Actually, this conflict is not as violent as it sounds, but it is the key to all maneuvers performed in the air. There is nothing mysterious about these forces; they are definite and known. The directions in which they act can be […]

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Airfoil

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

An airfoil is a surface designed to obtain lift from the air through which it moves. Thus, it can be stated that any part of the aircraft that converts air resistance into lift is an airfoil. The profile of a conventional wing is an excellent example of an airfoil. [Figure 2-3] Notice that the top […]

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Aerodynamics and the Laws of Physics

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

The law of conservation of energy states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed. Motion is the act or process of changing place or position. An object may be in motion with respect to one object and motionless with respect to another. For example, a person sitting quietly in an aircraft flying at 200 […]

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The Atmosphere

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

Before examining the fundamental laws of flight, several basic facts must be considered, namely that an aircraft operates in the air. Therefore, those properties of air that affect the control and performance of an aircraft must be understood. The air in the earth’s atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. Air is considered a […]

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Basic Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

Aerodynamics is the study of the dynamics of gases, the interaction between a moving object and the atmosphere being of primary interest for this handbook. The movement of an object and its reaction to the air flow around it can be seen when watching water passing the bow of a ship. The major difference between […]

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Helicopter Structures (Part Two)

Aircraft Structures

Fully Articulated Rotor System Fully articulated rotor blade systems provide hinges that allow the rotors to move fore and aft, as well as up and down. This lead-lag, drag, or hunting movement as it is called is in response to the Coriolis effect during rotational speed changes. When first starting to spin, the blades lag […]

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Helicopter Structures (Part One)

Aircraft Structures

The structures of the helicopter are designed to give the helicopter its unique flight characteristics. A simplified explanation of how a helicopter flies is that the rotors are rotating airfoils that provide lift similar to the way wings provide lift on a fixed-wing aircraft. Air flows faster over the curved upper surface of the rotors, […]

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Maintaining the Aircraft

Aircraft Structures

Maintenance of an aircraft is of the utmost importance for safe flight. Licensed technicians are committed to perform timely maintenance functions in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and under the 14 CFR. At no time is an act of aircraft maintenance taken lightly or improvised. The consequences of such action could be fatal and the […]

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