Maintenance Schedule Procedures and Maintenance Checklist

in Light-Sport Aircraft Engines

All stated checks are visual inspections for damage and wear, unless otherwise stated. All listed work must be carried out within the specified period. For the intervals between maintenance work, a tolerance of + or – 0 hour is permissible, but these tolerances must not be exceeded. This means that if a 100 hour check is actually carried out at 110 hour, the next check is due at 200 hour + or – 10 hour and not at 210 hour + or – 10 hour. If maintenance is performed before the prescribed interval, the next maintenance check is to be done at the same interval (e.g., if first 100-hour check is done after 87 hours of operation, the next 100-hour check must be carried out after 187 hours of operation).

Checks are carried out per the maintenance checklists, where type and volume of maintenance work is outlined in key words. The lists must be photocopied and filled out for each maintenance check. The respective check (e.g., 100- hour check) must be noted on the top of each page of the maintenance checklist. All the maintenance work carried out must be initialed in the signature area by the aircraft mechanic performing the task. After maintenance, the completed checklists must be entered in the maintenance records. The maintenance must be confirmed in the log book. All discrepancies and remedial action must be recorded in a report of findings to be generated and maintained by the company authorized to carry out maintenance work. It is the responsibility of the aircraft operator to store and keep the records. Replacement of equipment (e.g., carburetor, fuel pump, governor) and execution of Service Bulletins must be entered in the log book, stating required information.

Figure 11-26. Resonator hose and compensating tube.

Figure 11-26. Resonator hose and compensating tube.

Carburetor Synchronization

For smooth idling, synchronization of the throttle valves is necessary. When synchronizing, slacken both Bowden cables, and detach the resonator hose (3) of the compensating tube (2) to separate the two air intake systems. [Figure 11-26] In this condition, no significant difference in the engine running should be noticeable. If adjustment is needed for synchronous basic throttle adjustments (mechanical synchronization), proceed as follows. [Figures 11-27 and 11-28]

Figure 11-27. Carburetor throttle lever.

Figure 11-27. Carburetor throttle lever.

Adjust the two Bowden cables for simultaneous opening of the throttle valves. Remove the cable fixation (4) on the throttle lever (1). Next, release the return spring (5) from its attachment on the throttle lever (1), and return the throttle lever (1) to its idle stop position (3) by hand. There should be no resistance during this procedure. Unscrew the idle speed adjustment screw (2) until it is free of the stop. Insert a 0.1 mm (0.004 in) feeler gauge (gap X) between the idle speed adjustment screw (2) and the carburetor idle stop (3), then gently turn the idle screw clockwise until contact is made with the 0.1 mm (0.004 in) feeler gauge. Pull out the feeler gauge and turn each idle speed adjustment screw (2) 1.5 turns in clockwise direction. Gently turn each idle mixture screw (6) clockwise until it is fully inserted and, then, open by 1½ turns counterclockwise. Hook the return spring (5) back up to the throttle lever (1) in its original position. Check that the throttle valve opens fully, automatically. Carry out the above procedure on both carburetors.

Figure 11-28. Idle mixture screw.

Figure 11-28. Idle mixture screw.

NOTE: The mechanical carburetor synchronization is sufficiently exact.

At this point, place the throttle lever in the flightdeck to the idle stop position. Ensure that the throttle lever remains in this position during the next steps of the synchronization process. With the throttle lever in the idle stop position, move the throttle lever (1) to the carburetor idle stop position, using the cable fixation (4), and secure the Bowden cable accordingly. As soon as the two carburetor Bowden cables are installed (throttle lever idle position), check that the idle speed adjustment screw (2) rests fully on the idle stop (3) without pressure.

CAUTION: An idle speed that is too low results in gearbox damage, and if an idle speed is too high, the engine is harder to start. Start the engine and verify the idle speed. If the idle speed is too high or too low, adjust accordingly with idle speed adjustment screw (2). Check the operational idle mixture of the engine. If necessary, adjust with the idle mixture screw (6).

Pneumatic Synchronization

Mechanical synchronization should have already been accomplished. The two carburetors are adjusted to equal flow rate at idling by use of a suitable flow meter or vacuum gauges (1).

There are two possible methods to connect test equipment. One option is to remove hex screw (6) M6 x 6 from the intake manifold (7) and connect the vacuum gauge(s). [Figure 11-26 and Figure 11- 29] Remove the compensating tube (2) with attached hoses (12) (connection between intake manifolds) and plug the connections in the intake manifolds. The other hook up option is to remove the compensating tube hose (2) from the push-on connection (5) after removing the tension clamp (4). Using the push-on connection (5), install a flexible rubber hose (8) leading to the vacuum gauge (1), using the balance tube (4). Install the other flexible rubber hose leading to the vacuum gauge. [Figure 11-29] Before proceeding any further, secure the aircraft on the ground using wheel chocks and ropes.

Figure 11-29. Gauges attached to the engine.

Figure 11-29. Gauges attached to the engine. [click image to enlarge]

WARNING: Secure and observe the propeller zone during engine operation.

Start the engine, verify the idle speed, and make any necessary corrections. If a setting correction of more than ½ turn is required, repeat mechanical synchronization to prevent too high a load on the idle stops. If the idle speed is too high, the maximum the idle screw can be unscrewed is a complete turn. If no satisfactory result can be achieved, inspect the idle jets for contamination and clean if necessary.

Caution: Also check for translucent, jelly-like contamination. Inspect for free flow.

Once the proper idling speed has been established, it is necessary to check the operating range above the idle speed. First, establish that the engine is developing full takeoff performance or takeoff rpm when selected in the flightdeck. Then, the setting of the operating range (idle to full throttle) can be checked or adjusted.

Start and warm up engine as per the operator’s manual. Select full power and check that both pressure gauges are registering the same readings. If the same reading is not made on both gauges, shut down the engine and check that carburetor actuation has full travel and that the chokes are in the full off-position. If necessary, fit/modify the carburetor actuation as required to achieve full power on both carburetors. Once full power has been established on both carburetors, retard the throttle and observe the pressure gauge settings. The pressure gauges should show the same reading for both carburetors. Discrepancies must be compensated for by adjusting the off idle adjustment (7). [Figure 11-27] The carburetor with the lower indication must be advanced to match the higher one. This is done by shutting down the engine and loosening the locknut on the Bowden cable and screwing the off idle adjustment in by ½ turn, then tightening the locknut and retesting the engine. Final idle speed adjustment may be required by resetting the idle speed adjustment screws (2). [Figure 11-27] Equal adjustment must be made on both carburetors.

Any major adjustments require retesting to verify all parameters mentioned in this procedure are within limits. Install compensation tube assembly on the engine in reverse sequence of removal. Any minor differences in balance at idle speed is compensated for. Always follow the instructions of the instrument manufacturer.

Idle Speed Adjustment

If satisfactory idle speed adjustment cannot be achieved, inspection of the idle jet or additional pneumatic synchronization is necessary. Always carry out idle speed adjustment when the engine is warm. Basic adjustment of the idle speed is first accomplished by using the idle speed adjustment screw (2) of the throttle valve. [Figure 11-27]

Optimizing Engine Running

Optimizing the engine run is necessary only if not accomplished at carburetor synchronization. Close the idle mixture screw (6) by turning clockwise to screw in fully and, then, opening again by 1½ turns counterclockwise. [Figures 11-27 and 11-28] Starting from this basic adjustment, the idle mixture screw (6) is turned until the highest motor speed is reached. The optimum setting is the middle between the two positions, at which an rpm drop is noticed. Readjustment of the idle speed is carried out using the idle speed adjustment screw (2) and, if necessary, by slightly turning the idle mixture screw again. Turning the idle mixture control screw in a clockwise direction results in a leaner mixture and turning counterclockwise in a richer mixture.

Checking the Carburetor Actuation

The Bowden cables should be routed in such a way that carburetor actuation is not influenced by any movement of the engine or airframe, thus possibly falsifying idle speed setting and synchronization. [Figure 11-30] Each carburetor is actuated by two Bowden cables. At position 1, connection for throttle valve and at position 2, make the connection for the choke actuator. The Bowden cables must be adjusted so that the throttle valve and the choke actuation of the starting carburetor can be fully opened and closed. Bowden cables and lever must operate freely and not jam.

Figure 11-30. Bowden cable routing.

Figure 11-30. Bowden cable routing.

WARNING: With carburetor actuation not connected, the throttle valve is fully open. The initial position of the carburetor is full throttle. Never start the engine with the actuation disconnected. Inspect Bowden cables and levers for free movement. Cables must allow for full travel of lever from stop to stop. Adjust throttle cables to a clearance of 1 mm (0.04 in). Inspect and lubricate linkage on carburetor and carburetor joints with engine oil. Inspect return springs (3) and engagement holes for wear.