Layout and Forming (Part One)

in Aircraft Metal Structural Repair

Terminology

The following terms are commonly used in sheet metal forming and flat pattern layout. Familiarity with these terms aids in understanding how bend calculations are used in a bending operation. Figure 4-121 illustrates most of these terms.


Figure 4-121. Bend allowance terminology.

Figure 4-121. Bend allowance terminology. [click image to enlarge]

Base measurement—the outside dimensions of a formed part. Base measurement is given on the drawing or blueprint or may be obtained from the original part.

Leg—the longer part of a formed angle.

Flange—the shorter part of a formed angle—the opposite of leg. If each side of the angle is the same length, then each is known as a leg.

Grain of the metal—natural grain of the material is formed as the sheet is rolled from molten ingot. Bend lines should be made to lie at a 90˚ angle to the grain of the metal if possible.

Bend allowance (BA)—refers to the curved section of metal within the bend (the portion of metal that is curved in bending). The bend allowance may be considered as being the length of the curved portion of the neutral line.

Bend radius—the arc is formed when sheet metal is bent. This arc is called the bend radius. The bend radius is measured from a radius center to the inside surface of the metal. The minimum bend radius depends on the temper, thickness, and type of material. Always use a Minimum Bend Radius Table to determine the minimum bend radius for the alloy that is going to be used. Minimum bend radius charts can be found in manufacturer’s maintenance manuals.

Bend tangent line (BL)—the location at which the metal starts to bend and the line at which the metal stops curving. All the space between the band tangent lines is the bend allowance.

Neutral axis—an imaginary line that has the same length after bending as it had before bending. [Figure 4-122] After bending, the bend area is 10 to 15 percent thinner than before bending. This thinning of the bend area moves the neutral line of the metal in towards the radius center. For calculation purposes, it is often assumed that the neutral axis is located at the center of the material, although the neutral axis is not exactly in the center of the material. However, the amount of error incurred is so slight that, for most work, assuming it is at the center is satisfactory.

Figure 4-122. Neutral line.

Figure 4-122. Neutral line.

Mold line (ML)—an extension of the flat side of a part beyond the radius.

Mold line dimension (MLD)—the dimension of a part made by the intersection of mold lines. It is the dimension the part would have if its corners had no radius.

Mold point—the point of intersection of the mold lines. The mold point would be the outside corner of the part if there were no radius.

K-Factor—the percentage of the material thickness where there is no stretching or compressing of the material, such as the neutral axis. This percentage has been calculated and is one of 179 numbers on the K chart corresponding to one of the angles between 0° and 180° to which metal can be bent. [Figure 4-123] Whenever metal is to be bent to any angle other than 90° (K-factor of 90° equal to 1), the corresponding K-factor number is selected from the chart and is multiplied by the sum of the radius (R) and the thickness (T) of the metal. The product is the amount of setback (see next paragraph) for the bend. If no K chart is available, the K-factor can be calculated with a calculator by using the following formula: the K value is the tangent of one-half the bend angle.

Figure 4-123. K-factor.

Figure 4-123. K-factor. [click image to enlarge]

Setback (SB)—the distance the jaws of a brake must be setback from the mold line to form a bend. In a 90° bend, SB = R + T (radius of the bend plus thickness of the metal). The setback dimension must be determined prior to making the bend because setback is used in determining the location of the beginning bend tangent line. When a part has more than one bend, setback must be subtracted for each bend. The majority of bends in sheet metal are 90° bends. The K-factor must be used for all bends that are smaller or larger than 90°.

SB = K(R+T)

Sight line—also called the bend or brake line, it is the layout line on the metal being formed that is set even with the nose of the brake and serves as a guide in bending the work.

Flat—that portion of a part that is not included in the bend. It is equal to the base measurement (MLD) minus the setback.

Flat = MLD – SB

Closed angle—an angle that is less than 90° when measured between legs, or more than 90° when the amount of bend is measured.

Open angle—an angle that is more than 90° when measured between legs, or less than 90° when the amount of bend is measured.

Total developed width (TDW)—the width of material measured around the bends from edge to edge. Finding the TDW is necessary to determine the size of material to be cut. The TDW is less than the sum of mold line dimensions since the metal is bent on a radius and not to a square corner as mold line dimensions indicate.

Layout or Flat Pattern Development

To prevent any waste of material and to get a greater degree of accuracy in the finished part, it is wise to make a layout or flat pattern of a part before forming it. Construction of interchangeable structural and nonstructural parts is achieved by forming flat sheet stock to make channel, angle, zee, or hat section members. Before a sheet metal part is formed, make a flat pattern to show how much material is required in the bend areas, at what point the sheet must be inserted into the forming tool, or where bend lines are located. Bend lines must be determined to develop a flat pattern for sheet metal forming.

When forming straight angle bends, correct allowances must be made for setback and bend allowance. If shrinking or stretching processes are to be used, allowances must be made so that the part can be turned out with a minimum amount of forming.

Making Straight Line Bends

When forming straight bends, the thickness of the material, its alloy composition, and its temper condition must be considered. Generally speaking, the thinner the material is, the more sharply it can be bent (the smaller the radius of bend), and the softer the material is, the sharper the bend is. Other factors that must be considered when making straight line bends are bend allowance, setback, and brake or sight line.

The radius of bend of a sheet of material is the radius of the bend as measured on the inside of the curved material. The minimum radius of bend of a sheet of material is the sharpest curve, or bend, to which the sheet can be bent without critically weakening the metal at the bend. If the radius of bend is too small, stresses and strains weaken the metal and may result in cracking.

A minimum radius of bend is specified for each type of aircraft sheet metal. The minimum bend radius is affected by the kind of material, thickness of the material, and temper condition of the material. Annealed sheet can be bent to a radius approximately equal to its thickness. Stainless steel and 2024-T3 aluminum alloy require a fairly large bend radius.