Internal Structure of Metals

in Aircraft Materials Processes and Hardware

The results obtained by heat treatment depend to a great extent on the structure of the metal and on the manner in which the structure changes when the metal is heated and cooled. A pure metal cannot be hardened by heat treatment because there is little change in its structure when heated. On the other hand, most alloys respond to heat treatment since their structures change with heating and cooling.

An alloy may be in the form of a solid solution, a mechanical mixture, or a combination of a solid solution and a mechanical mixture. When an alloy is in the form of a solid solution, the elements and compounds which form the alloy are absorbed, one into the other, in much the same way that salt is dissolved in a glass of water, and the constituents cannot be identified even under a microscope.


When two or more elements or compounds are mixed but can be identified by microscopic examination, a mechanical mixture is formed. A mechanical mixture can be compared to the mixture of sand and gravel in concrete. The sand and gravel are both visible. Just as the sand and gravel are held together and kept in place by the matrix of cement, the other constituents of an alloy are embedded in the matrix formed by the base metal.

An alloy in the form of a mechanical mixture at ordinary temperatures may change to a solid solution when heated. When cooled back to normal temperature, the alloy may return to its original structure. On the other hand, it may remain a solid solution or form a combination of a solid solution and mechanical mixture. An alloy which consists of a combination of solid solution and mechanical mixture at normal temperatures may change to a solid solution when heated. When cooled, the alloy may remain a solid solution, return to its original structure, or form a complex solution.

Heat-Treating Equipment

Successful heat treating requires close control over all factors affecting the heating and cooling of metals. Such control is possible only when the proper equipment is available and the equipment is selected to fit the particular job. Thus, the furnace must be of the proper size and type and must be so controlled that temperatures are kept within the limits prescribed for each operation. Even the atmosphere within the furnace affects the condition of the part being heat treated. Further, the quenching equipment and the quenching medium must be selected to fit the metal and the heattreating operation. Finally, there must be equipment for handling parts and materials, for cleaning metals, and for straightening parts.