Hydraulic Power Systems – Valves (Part One)

in Hydraulic and Pneumatic Power Systems

Valves
Flow Control Valves

Flow control valves control the speed and/or direction of fluid flow in the hydraulic system. They provide for the operation of various components when desired and the speed at which the component operates. Examples of flow control valves include: selector valves, check valves, sequence valves, priority valves, shuttle valves, quick disconnect valves, and hydraulic fuses.


Selector Valves

A selector valve is used to control the direction of movement of a hydraulic actuating cylinder or similar device. It provides for the simultaneous flow of hydraulic fluid both into and out of the unit. Hydraulic system pressure can be routed with the selector valve to operate the unit in either direction and a corresponding return path for the fluid to the reservoir is provided. There are two main types of selector valves: open-center and closed-center. An open center valve allows a continuous flow of system hydraulic fluid through the valve even when the selector is not in a position to actuate a unit. A closed-center selector valve blocks the flow of fluid through the valve when it is in the NEUTRAL or OFF position. [Figure 12-33A]

Figure 12-33. Operation of a closed-center four-way selector valve, which controls an actuator.

Figure 12-33. Operation of a closed-center four-way selector valve, which controls an actuator. [click image to enlarge]

Selector valves may be poppet-type, spool-type, piston-type, rotary-type, or plug-type. [Figure 12-34] Regardless, each selector valve has a unique number of ports. The number of ports is determined by the particular requirements of the system in which the valve is used. Closed-centered selector valves with four ports are most common in aircraft hydraulic systems. These are known as four-way valves. Figure 12-33 illustrates how this valve connects to the pressure and return lines of the hydraulic system, as well as to the two ports on a common actuator. Most selector valves are mechanically controlled by a lever or electrically controlled by solenoid or servo. [Figure 12-35]
Figure 12-34. A poppet-type four-way selector valve.

Figure 12-34. A poppet-type four-way selector valve.

Figure 12-35. Four-way servo control valve.

Figure 12-35. Four-way servo control valve.

The four ports on a four-way selector valve always have the same function. One port receives pressurized fluid from the system hydraulic pump. A second port always returns fluid to the reservoir. The third and forth ports are used to connect the selector valve to the actuating unit. There are two ports on the actuating unit. When the selector valve is positioned to connect pressure to one port on the actuator, the other actuator port is simultaneously connected to the reservoir return line through selector valve. [Figure 12-33B] Thus, the unit operates in a certain direction. When the selector valve is positioned to connect pressure to the other port on the actuating unit, the original port is simultaneously connected to the return line through the selector valve and the unit operates in the opposite direction. [Figure 12-33C]

Figure 12-36 illustrates the internal flow paths of a solenoid operated selector valve. The closed center valve is shown in the NEUTRAL or OFF position. Neither solenoid is energized. The pressure port routes fluid to the center lobe on the spool, which blocks the flow. Fluid pressure flows through the pilot valves and applies equal pressure on both ends of the spool. The actuator lines are connected around the spool to the return line.

Figure 12-36. Servo control valve solenoids not energized.

Figure 12-36. Servo control valve solenoids not energized.

When selected via a switch in the cockpit, the right solenoid is energized. The right pilot valve plug shifts left, which blocks pressurized fluid from reaching the right end of the main spool. The spool slides to the right due to greater pressure applied on the left end of the spool. The center lobe of the spool no longer blocks system pressurized fluid, which flows to the actuator through the left actuator line. At the same time, return flow is blocked from the main spool left chamber so the actuator (not shown) moves in the selected direction. Return fluid from the moving actuator flows through the right actuator line past the spool and into the return line. [Figure 12-37]

Figure 12-37. Servo control valve right solenoid energized.

Figure 12-37. Servo control valve right solenoid energized.

Typically, the actuator or moving device contacts a limit switch when the desired motion is complete. The switch causes the right solenoid to de-energize and the right pilot valve reopens. Pressurized fluid can once again flow through the pilot valve and into the main spool right end chamber. There, the spring and fluid pressure shift the spool back to the left into the NEUTRAL or OFF position shown in Figure 12-36.

To make the actuator move in the opposite direction, the cockpit switch is moved in the opposite direction. All motion inside the selector valve is the same as described above but in the opposite direction. The left solenoid is energized. Pressure is applied to the actuator through the right port and return fluid from the left actuator line is connected to the return port through the motion of the spool to the left.

Check Valve

Another common flow control valve in aircraft hydraulic systems is the check valve. A check valve allows fluid to flow unimpeded in one direction, but prevents or restricts fluid flow in the opposite direction. A check valve may be an independent component situated in-line somewhere in the hydraulic system or it may be built-in to a component. When part of a component, the check valve is said to be an integral check valve.

A typical check valve consists of a spring loaded ball and seat inside a housing. The spring compresses to allow fluid flow in the designed direction. When flow stops, the spring pushes the ball against the seat which prevents fluid from flowing in the opposite direction through the valve. An arrow on the outside of the housing indicated the direction in which fluid flow is permitted. [Figure 12-38] A check valve may also be constructed with spring loaded flapper or coned shape piston instead of a ball.

Figure 12-38. An in-line check valve and orifice type in-line check valve.

Figure 12-38. An in-line check valve and orifice type in-line check valve. [click image to enlarge]

Orifice-Type Check Valve

Some check valves allow full fluid flow in one direction and restricted flow in the opposite direction. These are known as orifice-type check valves, or damping valves. The valve contains the same spring, ball, and seat combination as a normal check valve but the seat area has a calibrated orifice machined into it. Thus fluid flow is unrestricted in the designed direction while the ball is pushed off of its seat. The downstream actuator operates at full speed. When fluid back flows into the valve, the spring forces the ball against the seat which limits fluid flow to the amount that can pass through the orifice. The reduced flow in this opposite direction slows the motion, or dampens, the actuator associated with the check valve. [Figure 12-38]

An orifice check valve may be included in a hydraulic landing gear actuator system. When the gear is raised, the check valve allows full fluid flow to lift the heavy gear at maximum speed. When lowering the gear, the orifice in the check valve prevents the gear from violently dropping by restricting fluid flow out of the actuating cylinder.