Hot Working – Heating

in Aircraft Materials Processes and Hardware

The object in heating is to transform pearlite (a mixture of alternate strips of ferrite and iron carbide in a single grain) to austenite as the steel is heated through the critical range. Since this transition takes time, a relatively slow rate of heating must be used. Ordinarily, the cold steel is inserted when the temperature in the furnace is from 300 °F to 500 °F below the hardening temperature. In this way, too rapid heating through the critical range is prevented.

If temperature measuring equipment is not available, it becomes necessary to estimate temperatures by some other means. An inexpensive, yet fairly accurate method involves the use of commercial crayons, pellets, or paints that melt at various temperatures within the range of 125 °F to 1,600 °F. The least accurate method of temperature estimation is by observation of the color of the hot hearth of the furnace or of the work.


The heat colors observed are affected by many factors, such as the conditions of artificial or natural light, the character of the scale on the work, and so forth. Steel begins to appear dull red at about 1,000 °F, and as the temperature increases, the color changes
gradually through various shades of red to orange, to yellow, and finally to white. A rough approximation of the correspondence between color and temperature is indicated in Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5. Temperature chart indicating conversion of Centigrade to Fahrenheit or visa versa, color temperature scale for hardening temperature range, and tempering temperature range.

Figure 5-5. Temperature chart indicating conversion of Centigrade to Fahrenheit or visa versa, color temperature scale for hardening temperature range, and tempering temperature range.

It is also possible to secure some idea of the temperature of a piece of carbon or low alloy steel, in the low temperature range used for tempering, from the color of the thin oxide film that forms on the cleaned surface of the steel when heated in this range. The approximate temperature/color relationship is indicated on the lower portion of the scale in Figure 5-5.

It is often necessary or desirable to protect steel or cast iron from surface oxidation (scaling) and loss of carbon from the surface layers (decarburization). Commercial furnaces, therefore, are generally equipped with some means of atmosphere control. This usually is in the form of a burner for burning controlled amounts of gas and air and directing the products of combustion into the furnace muffle. Water vapor, a product of this combustion, is detrimental and many furnaces are equipped with a means for eliminating it. For furnaces not equipped with atmosphere control, a variety of external atmosphere generators are available. The gas so generated is piped into the furnace and one generator may supply several furnaces. If no method of atmosphere control is available, some degree of protection may be secured by covering the work with cast iron borings or chips.

Since the work in salt or lead baths is surrounded by the liquid heating medium, the problem of preventing scaling or decarburization is simplified.

Vacuum furnaces also are used for annealing steels, especially when a bright nonoxidized surface is a prime consideration.