High-Tension Magneto System Theory of Operation – Magneto and Distributor Venting

in Engine Ignition and Electrical Systems

Since magneto and distributor assemblies are subjected to sudden changes in temperature, the problems of condensation and moisture are considered in the design of these units. Moisture in any form is a good conductor of electricity. If absorbed by the nonconducting material in the magneto, such as distributor blocks, distributor fingers, and coil cases, it can create a stray electrical conducting path. The high-voltage current that normally arcs across the air gaps of the distributor can flash across a wet insulating surface to ground, or the high-voltage current can be misdirected to some spark plug other than the one that should be fired. This condition is called flashover and usually results in cylinder misfiring. This can cause a serious engine condition called pre-ignition, which can damage the engine. For this reason, coils, condensers, distributors, and distributor rotors are waxed so that moisture on such units stand in separate beads and do not form a complete circuit for flashover.

Flashover can lead to carbon tracking, which appears as a fine pencil-like line on the unit across which flashover occurs. The carbon trail results from the electric spark burning dirt particles that contain hydrocarbon materials. The water in the hydrocarbon material is evaporated during flashover, leaving carbon to form a conducting path for current. When moisture is no longer present, the spark continues to follow the carbon track to the ground. This prevents the spark from getting to the spark plug, so the cylinder does not fire.

Magnetos cannot be hermetically sealed to prevent moisture from entering a unit, because the magneto is subject to pressure and temperature changes in altitude. Thus, adequate drains and proper ventilation reduce the tendency of flashover and carbon tracking. Good magneto circulation also ensures that corrosive gases produced by normal arcing across the distributor air gap, such as ozone, are carried away. In some installations, pressurization of the internal components of the magnetos and other various parts of the ignition system is essential to maintain a higher absolute pressure inside the magneto and to eliminate flashover due to high altitude flight. This type of magneto is used with turbocharged engines that operate at higher altitudes. Flashover becomes more likely at high altitudes because of the lower air pressure, which makes it easier for the electricity to jump air gaps. By pressurizing the interior of the magneto, the normal air pressure is maintained and the electricity or the spark is held within the proper areas of the magneto even though the ambient pressure is very low.

Even in a pressurized magneto, the air is allowed to flow through and out of the magneto housing. By providing more air and allowing small amounts of air to bleed out for ventilation, the magneto remains pressurized. Regardless of the method of venting employed, the vent bleeds or valves must be kept free of obstructions. Further, the air circulating through the components of the ignition system must be free of oil since even minute amounts of oil on ignition parts result in flashover and carbon tracking.