The accessory section of the gas turbine engine has various functions. The primary function is to provide space for the mounting of accessories necessary for operation and control of the engine. Generally, it also includes accessories concerned with the aircraft, such as electric generators and hydraulic pumps. Secondary functions include acting as an oil reservoir and/or oil sump and housing the accessory drive gears and reduction gears.
The arrangement and driving of accessories has always been a major problem on gas turbine engines. Driven accessories on turbofans are usually mounted on the accessory gear box, which is on the bottom of the engine. The location of the accessory gear box varies somewhat, but most turboprops and turboshafts have the accessory cases mounted to the back section of the engine.
The components of the accessory section of all gas turbine engines have essentially the same purpose, even though they often differ quite extensively in construction details and nomenclature.
The basic elements of the accessory section are:
- The accessory case, which has machined mounting pads for the engine-driven accessories, and
- The gear train, which is housed within the accessory case.
The accessory case may be designed to act as an oil reservoir. If an oil tank is utilized, a sump is usually provided below the front bearing support for the drainage and scavenging of oil used to lubricate bearings and drive gears. The accessory case is also provided with adequate tubing or cored passages for spraying, lubricating oil on the gear train and supporting bearings.
The gear train is driven by the engine high-pressure compressor through an accessory drive shaft (tower shaft) gear coupling, which splines with a gear box gear and the high-pressure compressor. The reduction gearing within the case provides suitable drive speeds for each engine accessory or component. Because the rotor operating rpm is so high, the accessory reduction gear ratios are relatively high. The accessory drives are supported by ball bearings assembled in the mounting pad bores of the accessory case. [Figure 1-45]