Fundamentals of Electronics – Analog Electronics (Part Five)

in Communication and Navigation

Photodiodes and Phototransistors

Light contains electromagnetic energy that is carried by photons. The amount of energy depends on the frequency of light of the photon. This energy can be very useful in the operation of electronic devices since all semiconductors are affected by light energy. When a photon strikes a semiconductor atom, it raises the energy level above what is needed to hold its electrons in orbit. The extra energy frees an electron enabling it to flow as current. The vacated position of the electron becomes a hole. In photodiodes, this occurs in the depletion area of the reversed biased PN junction turning on the device and allowing current to flow.


Figure 11-38. The symbol for a photodiode and a photodiode in a simple coil circuit.

Figure 11-38. The symbol for a photodiode and a photodiode in a simple coil circuit.

Figure 11-38 illustrates a photodiode in a coil circuit. In this case, the light striking the photodiode causes current to flow in the circuit whereas the diode would have otherwise blocked it. The result is the coil energizes and closes another circuit enabling its operation.

Figure 11-39. A photo transistor in a simple coil circuit (bottom) and the symbol for a phototransistor (top).

Figure 11-39. A photo transistor in a simple coil circuit (bottom) and the symbol for a phototransistor (top).

A photon activated transistor could be used to carry even more current than a photodiode. In this case, the light energy is focused on a collector-base junction. This frees electrons in the depletion area and starts a flow of electrons from the base that turns on the transistor. Once on, heavier current flows from the emitter to the collector. [Figure 11-39] In practice, engineers have developed numerous ways to use the energy in light photons to trigger semiconductor devices in electronic circuits. [Figure 11-40]

Figure 11-40. Phototransistors.

Figure 11-40. Phototransistors.

Light Emitting Diodes

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become so commonly used in electronics that their importance may tend to be overlooked. Numerous avionics displays and indicators use LEDs for indicator lights, digital readouts, and backlighting of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens.

LEDs are simple and reliable. They are constructed of semiconductor material. When a free electron from a semiconductor drops into a semiconductor hole, energy is given off. This is true in all semiconductor materials. However, the energy released when this happens in certain materials is in the frequency range of visible light. Figure 11-41 is a table that illustrates common LED colors and the semiconductor material that is used in the construction of the diode.

Figure 11-41. LED colors and the materials used to construct them as well as their wavelength and voltages.

Figure 11-41. LED colors and the materials used to construct them as well as their wavelength and voltages. [click image to enlarge]

NOTE: When the diode is reversed biased, no light is given off. When the diode is forward biased, the energy given off is visible in the color characteristic for the material being used. Figure 11-42 illustrates the anatomy of a single LED, the symbol of an LED, and a graphic depiction of the LED process.

Figure 11-42. A close up of a single LED (left) and the process of a semi-conductor producing light by electrons dropping into holes and giving off energy (right). The symbol for a light emitting diode is the diode symbol with two arrows pointing away from the junction.

Figure 11-42. A close up of a single LED (left) and the process of a semi-conductor producing light by electrons dropping into holes and giving off energy (right). The symbol for a light emitting diode is the diode symbol with two arrows pointing away from the junction. [click image to enlarge]

Basic Analog Circuits

The solid-state semiconductor devices described in the previous section of this chapter can be found in both analog and digital electronic circuits. As digital electronics evolve, analog circuitry is being replaced. However, many aircraft still make use of analog electronics in radio and navigation equipment, as well as in other aircraft systems. A brief look at some of the basic analog circuits follows.

Rectifiers

Rectifier circuits change AC voltage into DC voltage and are one of the most commonly used type of circuits in aircraft electronics. [Figure 11-43] The resulting DC waveform output is also shown. The circuit has a single semiconductor diode and a load resistor. When the AC voltage cycles below zero, the diode shuts off and does not allow current flow until the AC cycles through zero voltage again. The result is pronounced pulsating DC. While this can be useful, half of the original AC voltage is not being used.

Figure 11-43. A half wave rectifier uses one diode to produce pulsating DC current from AC. Half of the AC cycle is wasted when the diode blocks the current flow as the AC cycles below zero.

Figure 11-43. A half wave rectifier uses one diode to produce pulsating DC current from AC. Half of the AC cycle is wasted when the diode blocks the current flow as the AC cycles below zero.

A full wave rectifier creates pulsating DC from AC while using the full AC cycle. One way to do this is to tap the secondary coil at its midpoint and construct two circuits with the load resistor and a diode in each circuit. [Figure 11-44] The diodes are arranged so that when current is flowing through one, the other blocks current.

Figure 11-44. A full wave rectifier can be built by center tapping the secondary coil of the transformer and using two diodes in separate circuits. This rectifies the entire AC input into a pulsating DC with twice the frequency of a half wave rectifier.

Figure 11-44. A full wave rectifier can be built by center tapping the secondary coil of the transformer and using two diodes in separate circuits. This rectifies the entire AC input into a pulsating DC with twice the frequency of a half wave rectifier.

When the AC cycles so the top of the secondary coil of the transformer is positive, current flows from ground, through the load resistor (VRL), Diode 1, and the upper half of the coil. Current cannot flow through Diode 2 because it is blocked. [Figure 11-44A] As the AC cycles through zero, the polarity of the secondary coil changes. [Figure 11-44B] Current then flows from ground, through the load resistor, Diode 2, and the bottom half of the secondary coil. Current flow through Diode 1 is blocked. This arrangement yields positive DC from cycling AC with no wasted current.

Another way to construct a full wave rectifier uses four semiconductor diodes in a bridge circuit. Because the secondary coil of the transformer is not tapped at the center, the resultant DC voltage output is twice that of the two-diode full wave rectifier. [Figure 11-45] During the first half of the AC cycle, the bottom of the secondary coil is negative.

Figure 11-45. The bridge-type four-diode full wave rectifier circuit is most commonly used to rectify single-phase AC into DC.

Figure 11-45. The bridge-type four-diode full wave rectifier circuit is most commonly used to rectify single-phase AC into DC.

Current flows from it through diode (D1), then through the load resistor, and through diode (D2) on its way back to the top of the secondary coil. When the AC reverses its cycle, the polarity of the secondary coil changes. Current flows from the top of the coil through diode (D3), then through the load resistor, and through diode (D4) on its way back to the bottom of the secondary coil. The output waveform reflects the higher voltage achieved by rectifying the full AC cycle through the entire length of the secondary coil.

Use and rectification of three-phase AC is also possible on aircraft with a specific benefit. The output DC is very smooth and does not drop to zero. A six diode circuit is built to rectify the typical three-phase AC produced by an aircraft alternator. [Figure 11-46]

Figure 11-46. A six-diode three-phase AC rectifier.

Figure 11-46. A
six-diode three-phase AC rectifier.

Each stator coil corresponds to a phase of AC and becomes negative for 120° of rotation of the rotor. When stator 1 or the first phase is negative, current flows from it through diode (D1), then through the load resistor and through diode (D2) on its way back to the third phase coil. Next, the second phase coil becomes negative and current flows through diode (D3). It continues to flow through the load resistor and diode (D4) on its way back to the first phase coil. Finally, the third stage coil becomes negative causing current to flow through diode (D5), then the load resistor and diode (D6) on its way back to the second phase coil. The output waveform of this three-phase rectifier depicts the DC produced. It is a relatively steady, non-pulsing flow equivalent to just the tops of the individual curves. The phase overlap prevents voltage from falling to zero producing smooth DC from AC.

Amplifiers

An amplifier is a circuit that changes the amplitude of an electric signal. This is done through the use of transistors. As mentioned, a transistor that is forward biased at the base-emitter junction and reversed biased at the collectorbase junction is turned on. It can conduct current from the collector to the emitter. Because a small signal at the base can cause a large current to flow from collector to emitter, a transistor in itself can be said to be an amplifier. However, a transistor properly wired into a circuit with resistors, power sources, and other electronic components, such as capacitors, can precisely control more than signal amplitude. Phase and impedance can also be manipulated.

Since the typical bi-polar junction transistor requires a based circuit and a collector-emitter circuit, there should be four terminals, two for each circuit. However, the transistor only has three terminals (i.e., the base, the collector, and the emitter). Therefore, one of the terminals must be common to both transistor circuits. The selection of the common terminal affects the output of the amplifier.

Since the typical bipolar junction transistor requires a base circuit and a collector-emitter circuit, there should be four terminals—two for each circuit. However, the transistor only has three terminals: the base, the collector, and the emitter. Therefore, one of the terminals must be common to both transistor circuits. The selection of the common terminal affects the output of the amplifier.

The three basic amplifier types, named for which terminal of the transistor is the common terminal to both transistor circuits, include:

  1. Common-emitter amplifier
  2. Common-collector amplifier
  3. Common-base amplifier