Float-Type Carburetors – Main Metering System

in Engine Fuel and Fuel Metering Systems

The main metering system supplies fuel to the engine at all speeds above idling and consists of:

  1. Venturi
  2. Main metering jet
  3. Main discharge nozzle
  4. Passage leading to the idling system
  5. Throttle valve

Since the throttle valve controls the mass airflow through the carburetor venturi, it must be considered a major unit in the main metering system as well as in other carburetor systems. A typical main metering system is illustrated in Figure 2-12. The venturi performs three functions:

  1. Proportions the fuel/air mixture
  2. Decreases the pressure at the discharge nozzle
  3. Limits the airflow at full throttle
Figure 2-12. Main metering system.

Figure 2-12. Main metering system.

The fuel discharge nozzle is located in the carburetor barrel so that its open end is in the throat or narrowest part of the venturi. A main metering orifice, or jet, is placed in the fuel passage between the float chamber and the discharge nozzle to limit the fuel flow when the throttle valve is wide open.

When the engine crankshaft is revolved with the carburetor throttle open, the low pressure created in the intake manifold acts on the air passing through the carburetor barrel. Due to the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and the intake manifold, air flows from the air intake through the carburetor barrel into the intake manifold. The volume of airflow depends upon the degree of throttle opening. As the air flows through the venturi, its velocity increases. This velocity increase creates a low pressure area in the venturi throat. The fuel discharge nozzle is exposed to this low pressure. Since the float chamber is vented to atmospheric pressure, a pressure drop across the discharge nozzle is created. It is this pressure difference, or metering force, that causes fuel to flow from the discharge nozzle. The fuel comes out of the nozzle in a fine spray, and the tiny particles of fuel in the spray quickly vaporize in the air.

The metering force (pressure differential) in most carburetors increases as the throttle opening is increased. The fuel must be raised in the discharge nozzle to a level at which it discharges into the airstream. To accomplish this, a pressure differential of 0.5 “Hg is required. When the metering force is considerably reduced at low engine speeds, the fuel delivery from the discharge nozzle decreases if an air bleed (air metering jet) is not incorporated in the carburetor. The decrease in fuel flow in relation to airflow is due to two factors:

  1. The fuel tends to adhere to the walls of the discharge nozzle and break off intermittently in large drops instead of forming a fine spray, and
  2. A part of the metering force is required to raise the fuel level from the float chamber level to the discharge nozzle outlet.
Figure 2-13. Air bleed principle.

Figure 2-13. Air bleed principle.

The basic principle of the air bleed can be explained by simple diagrams, as shown in Figure 2-13. In each case, the same degree of suction is applied to a vertical tube placed in the container of liquid. As shown in A, the suction applied on the upper end of the tube is sufficient to lift the liquid a distance of about 1 inch above the surface. If a small hole is made in the side of the tube above the surface of the liquid, as in B, and suction is applied, bubbles of air enter the tube and the liquid is drawn up in a continuous series of small slugs or drops. Thus, air “bleeds” into the tube and partially reduces the forces tending to retard the flow of liquid through the tube. However, the large opening at the bottom of the tube effectively prevents any great amount of suction from being exerted on the air bleed hole or vent. Similarly, an air bleed hole that is too large in proportion to the size of the tube would reduce the suction available to lift the liquid. If the system is modified by placing a metering orifice in the bottom of the tube and air is taken in below the fuel level by means of an air bleed tube, a finely divided mixture of air and liquid is formed in the tube, as shown in C.

In a carburetor, a small air bleed is bled into the fuel nozzle slightly below the fuel level. The open end of the air bleed is in the space behind the venturi wall where the air is relatively motionless and at approximately atmospheric pressure. The low pressure at the tip of the nozzle not only draws fuel from the float chamber but also draws air from behind the venturi. Air bled into the main metering fuel system decreases the fuel density and destroys surface tension. This results in better vaporization and control of fuel discharge, especially at lower engine speeds. The throttle, or butterfly valve, is located in the carburetor barrel near one end of the venturi. It provides a means of controlling engine speed or power output by regulating the airflow to the engine. This valve is a disk that can rotate on an axis, so that it can be turned to open or close the carburetor air passage.