Engine Fuel System Components – Fuel Spray Nozzles and Fuel Manifolds

in Engine Fuel and Fuel Metering Systems

Although fuel spray nozzles are an integral part of the fuel system, their design is closely related to the type of combustion chamber in which they are installed. The fuel nozzles inject fuel into the combustion area in a highly atomized, precisely patterned spray so that burning is completed evenly, in the shortest possible time, and in the smallest possible space. It is very important that the fuel be evenly distributed and well centered in the flame area within the liners. This is to preclude the formation of any hot spots in the combustion chambers and to prevent the flame burning through the liner.

Fuel nozzle types vary considerably between engines, although for the most part fuel is sprayed into the combustion area under pressure through small orifices in the nozzles. The two types of fuel nozzles generally used are the simplex and the duplex configurations. The duplex nozzle usually requires a dual manifold and a pressurizing valve or flow divider for dividing primary and secondary (main) fuel flow, but the simplex nozzle requires only a single manifold for proper fuel delivery.

The fuel nozzles can be constructed to be installed in various ways. The two methods used quite frequently are:

  1. External mounting wherein a mounting pad is provided for attachment of the nozzles to the case or the inlet air elbow, with the nozzle near the dome; or
  2. Internal mounting at the liner dome, in which the chamber cover must be removed for replacement or maintenance of the nozzle.

The nozzles used in a specific engine should be matched so that they flow equal amounts of fuel. Even fuel distribution is important to efficient combustion in the burner section. The fuel nozzle must present a fine spray with the correct pattern and optimum atomization.